BISC 101 Study Guide - Final Guide: Histidine, Digestion, Hemolymph

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BISC101–Lecture12–AnimalForm&Function
DiverseForms,CommonChallenges
● Anatomy:Thestudyofthebiologicalformofanorganism
● Physiology:Thestudyofthebiologicalfunctionsanorganismperforms
● Comparativestudyofanimalsrevealsthatform(anatomy)andfunction
(physiology)arecloselycorrelated
o Ex:Long,tongue–likeproboscisofahawkmothisastructuraladaptation
forfeedingonnectarwithintube–shapedflowers
● Formandfunctionarecorrelatedatalllevelsofbiologicalorganization
● Sizeandshapeaffectthewayananimalinteractswithitsenvironment
● Manydifferentanimalbodyplanshaveevolvedandaredeterminedbythe
genomeorenvironment
ExchangewiththeEnvironment
● Materialssuchanutrients,wasteproducts,andgasesmustbeexchanged
acrossthecellmembranesofanimalcells
● RateofExchange:Proportionaltoacell’ssurfacearea
● AmountofExchangeMaterial:Proportionaltoacell’svolume
● Exchangeoccursassubstancesdissolvedintheaqueousmediumdiffuseand
aretransportedacrosstheplasmamembrane
o Ex:Asingle–celledprotistlivinginwaterhasasufficientsurfaceareaof
plasmamembranetoserviceitsentirevolumeofcytoplasm
● Multicellularorganismswithasacbodyplanhavebodywallsthatareonlytwo
cellsthick,facilitatingdiffusionofmaterials
o Thehydra’sgastrovascularcavityopenstotheexterior,allowingboth
outerandinnerlayersofcellstobebathedinwater
● Inflatanimalsthedistancebetweencellsandtheenvironmentisminimized
o Flatwormsandtapeworms
● Morecomplexorganismshavehighlyfoldedinternalsurfacesforexchanging
materials
HierarchalOrganizationofBodyPlans
● InterstitialFluid:Fluidfilledinthespacesbetweencellstoallowmovementof
materialintoandoutofcells
o Interstitialfluidispresentinvertebrates
● Acomplexbodyplanhelpsananimalinavariableenvironmenttomaintaina
relativelystableinternalenvironment
● Mostanimalsarecomposedofspecializedcellsorganizedintotissuesthathave
differentfunctions
● Tissuesmakeuporgans,whichtogethermakeuptheorgansystem
o Cells→Tissue→Organ→OrganSystem
TissueStructureandFunction
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● Differenttissueshavedifferentstructuresthataresuitedtotheirfunctions
EpithelialTissue
● EpithelialTissue:Tightlypackedcellsthatarecloselyjoinedtogetherthatcover
theoutsideofthebodyandlinestheorgansandcavitieswithinthebody
● Variousshapesofepithelialcells
o Cuboidal:Dice–like
o Columnar:Longthingrectangularlikebricks
o Squamous:Likefloortiles
● SimpleEpithelium:Singlelayerofcells
● StratifiedEpithelium:Multiplelayersofcells
● PseudostratifiedEpithelium:Singlelayerofcellsbutlookslikemultiplelayers
ConnectiveTissue
● ConnectiveTissue:Mainlybindsandsupportsothertissues
● Containssparselypackedcellsscatteredthroughoutanextracellularmatrix
1. LooseConnectiveTissue:Bindsepitheliatounderlyingtissues,holdsorgansinplace
2. FibrousConnectiveTissue:Foundintendonsandligaments
o Tendons:Attachmusclestobones
o Ligaments:Connectbonesatjoints
3. Cartilage:Astrongandflexiblesupportmaterial
o Foundinthenose,ears,vertebraldisks,andpartoftheribcage
o Cartilagehasanabundanceofcollagenousfibersembeddedinarubberymatrix
madeofasubstancecalledchondroitinsulfate
● ChondroitinSulfate:Aprotein–carbohydratecomplex
o Chondrocytes:Secretecollagenandchondroitinsulfate
o Thecompositeofcollagenousfibersandchroitinsulfatemakescartilagea
strongyetsomewhatflexiblesupportmaterial
o Theskeletonofsharks,skatesandraysarepredominantlymadeupofcartilage
4. AdiposeTissue:Storesfatforinsulationandfuel
o Eachadiposecellcontainsalargefatdropletthatswellswhenfatisstoredand
shrinkswhenthebodyusesfatasfuel
5. Blood:Composedofbloodcellsandcellfragmentsinbloodplasma
o Matrixisaliquidcalledplasma,consistingofwater,salts,anddissolvedproteins
o Suspendedintheplasmaareerythrocytes(redbloodcells),leukocytes(white
bloodcells)andcellfragmentscalledthrombocytes(platelets)
6. Bone:Mineralizedandformstheskeleton
o Osteoblasts:Immaturebonecellsthatdepositamatrixofcollagen
o Lacunae:Spaceswhereactiveosteoblastsaretrappedasnewboneisformed
o Osteocytes:Maturedosteoblasts
o Calciumandphosphateionscombinewithcollagenandhardenwithinthematrix
intothemineralhydroxyapatite
o Thecombinationofhardmineralandflexiblecollagenmakesboneharderthan
cartilagewithoutbeingbrittle
o Microscopicstructureofhardmammalianbonesconsistofrepeatingunitscalled
osteonorhaversiansystems
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o Eachosteonhasconcentriclayersofmineralizedmatrixdepositedarounda
centralcanalcontainingbloodvesselsandnervesthatservicethebone
o Osteoclasts:Releaseanacidtodissolvecollagenandmineralcoatinginorderto
raisecalciumlevelsinbloodiftheyaretoolow
MuscleTissue
● MuscleTissue:Consistsoflongcellscalledmusclefibers,whichcontractin
responsetonervesignals
● Threetypesofmuscletissuedividedinthevertebratebodyintothreetypes
1. SkeletalMuscles:Attachedtobonesresponsibleforvoluntarymovement
o Cellsarecylindrical
o Cellsaremultinucleated
o Cellsarestriated
2. SmoothMuscle:Mainlylinesinternalorgansandbloodvessels
o Responsibleforinvoluntarybodyactivities
o Cellsarespindleshaped
o Cellsaremononucleated
o Cellsarenotstriated
3. CardiacMuscle:Responsibleforheartcontractions
o Cellsarehighlybranched
o Cellsaremononucleated
o Cellsareseparatedbyintercalateddiscswhicharerequiredfor
transferofelectricalexcitationbetweencells
o Cellsarestriated
NervousTissue
● NervousTissue:Sensesstimuliandtransmitssignalsthroughouttheanimal
● Nervoustissuecontainsneurons
● Neurons:Nervecellsthattransmitnerveimpulses
● Mostneuronshavetwodistincttypesofprojectionsfromthecellbodywherethe
nucleusislocated
o Dendrites:Highlybranched,relativelyshortprocesses
o Axons:Relativelylongstructures
● Dendritestransmitelectricalsignalstothecellbody
● Axonscarryelectricalsinglefromthecellbodytoothercells
● GlialCellsorGlia:Helpnourish,insulate,andreplenishneurons
o Providesupportprotectionforneurons
Feedback
● Feedbackcontrolloopsmaintaintheinternalenvironmentinmanyanimals
● Animalsmanagetheirinternalenvironmentbyregulatingorconformingtothe
externalenvironment
● Regulator:Usesinternalcontrolmechanismstomoderateinternalchangeinthe
faceofexternal,environmentalfluctuations
o Ex:Otters
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