BISC 101 LAB NOTES (Part 1)

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Simon Fraser University
Biological Sciences
BISC 101
Tony Williams

BIOLOGY 101LABORATORY GENERAL BIOLOGYFALL 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS I BASIC ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR CHEMISTRY3 II BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES6 III CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION18 IV MOLECULAR BIOLOGY27 V ENZYMES VI PHOTOSYNTHESIS VII PLANT BIOLOGY 1 ROOT AND STEMS LAB MIDTERM 1 OCTOBER 15 VIII PLANT BIOLOGY 2 LEAVES FLOWERS FRUITS AND SEEDS IX ANIMAL BIOLOGY 1 INTEGUMENTARY SKELETAL AND DIGESTIVE SYSTEMS X ANIMAL BIOLOGY 2 RESPIRATORY AND CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS XI ANIMAL BIOLOGY 3 EXCRETORY REPRODUCTIVE AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS XII ANIMAL BIOLOGY 4 NERVOUS AND MUSCULAR SYSTEMS LAB FINAL NOVEMBER 262 BASIC ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR CHEMISTRY I STRUCTURE OF THE ATOMAll atoms have electronscharge particles and protonseg H 1 proton 1 eProtons in nucleus of atomAtomicnumber of protons in atomElectrons move around nucleus in electron shellsNeutron neutral particles in nucleus eg He 2 protons 2 neutrons 2 eE do not all occupy the same shell Recall nshells subshells orbitals 2of e In any shell is given by 2n where nshell No more than 8 e can be found in outermost shell of atom octet rule Periodic table on p 26 of BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES rd From K to Kr 3 shell does not get 18 e until n4 is filling up AUFBAUSame groupsame ein outer shell II ATOMIC WEIGHTStandard reference atom Carbon 6 p 6 n 6 e of weight 12 daltons12 daltons 6 protons6 neutrons so each protonneutron1 dalton eg H 1 proton1 dalton He 2 protons2 neutrons4 daltons III ELECTRONEGATIVITYBOND FORMATIONAtoms gain or lose e until outer shell is stableatoms with 4 e will lose themAtoms that GAIN e are more electronegative than atoms that LOSE eOn PTincreasing electronegativityincreasing electronegativity 1 Lower the atomicin grouphigher electronegativity The farther away the outer shell is from thenucleus the less force is holding onto e 2 Elements requiring 1 or 2 e for 8 outer eelectronegative than those that need 6 or 73
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