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BISC 304W (1)

Final Study-309.pdf

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Simon Fraser University
Biological Sciences
David Green

Roadmaps Saturday November 9 2013320 PMClimate Change RoadmapQuestions SLOSS What is the physical basis for climate change1Greenhouse effectaSome infrared radiation passes through the atmosphere but most is absorbed and remitted iin all directions by greenhouse gas molecules and cloudsEffect warm the earths surface and lower atmosphere iAbout half of the solar radiation is absorbed by Earths surface and warms itiiRadiative forcing net irradiancebRadiative forcing net irradiance at the atmospheric boundary between the troposphere and istratosphereNet irradiance is the difference between the incoming radiation energy and outgoing iiradiation energy in a given climate system measured in watts per square meterGreenhouse gasescGreenhouses CO2 deforestation fossil fuels methane agriculture natural gas N2O ifertilizer halocarbonschloroflurocarbon gases for refrigeratorsWhat is the physical evidence for CC2Industrialization has accelerated greenhouse gas productionaMost heat is transferred to the oceansbGlaciers are meltingcSea level risedWhat are the biological impacts of climate change3Spring is earlier across tropic levelsaChanging bloom timingsbMismatch forspawning and temperatures for salmoniMismatch between timings of predatorprey behavior iiChanging geographic distributions of fish populations and speciescRange expansion of southern species range contraction of N species deepening of N isea fishesLife history of Distribution SkillsdShifters are typically smaller and lower age maturityiDangerous CC increase extremes as well as mean effectseEVERYTHIGN UP TO NOW HAS BEEN ABOUT AVERAGES INCREASE AVERAGES INCREASE iRISKSWarming earlier spawning migration and higher mortality fHells gate on Fraser RiveriWhat are the biodiversity impacts of CC4Temperature and coral bleachingaBleaching increase in temperature increase percentage of coral reef cells bleachediHotspotsiiHeating weekiii1 degree1 degree increase for 1 week1Climate envelopesbEnvelopes statistical correlations between species spatial distribution and ienvironmental variables temp precipitation Draws around existing rangesusing predictions based on physical variables and new iirange of boundaries predicted Assumes no limits to dispersal and populations are not affected by biotic factorsiiiFish envelopes bio climate envelopes are defined by sea water temperaturecSmall yellow croakercenter location near Japan and China not changing but range is imarkets change to adapt to spreadTerrestrial extinctions dProduces numerous shifts in distribution and abundance of species leads to extinctionsiBased on statistical envelope approachiiEndemic animals are at riskiiiBy 2050 1530 of species will go extinctiv30 years13 likely to go extinct1 Final Study Page 1 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF httpwwwnovapdfcom
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