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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Diana Bedoya

Chapter 1: Nutrition: Everyday Choices - Nutrition: sciences of foods and their components o Actions within the body o Relationships to health & disease o Social/ economical/cultural/and psychological implications of eating Why is it important to study nutrition? - Reduce risks of health issues/ healthier choices, take action at population/personal levels, know what nutrients provide us energy Food Choices and Nutrient intake - Approx. 200 food decisions a day o About how you eat overall, determines what nutrient consumed - 40+ essential nutrients to stay healthy (some in fortified food) o Consumed outside of body - Calories: (energy) a diet contains is the primary nutritional predictor of body weight o Important to choose nutrient dense foods What determines food choices? - Taste, smell, appearance and texture - Cultural and societal norms (what other people eat) - Geographical availability (imported/exported) - Environment (weather) - Health consciousness (health priority) - Psychological states (sad = eating more) The 6 Essential Nutrients: The Macronutrients - Everything except water is energy yielding - Water (most essential) - Carbohydrates (quick energy source) o Sugars, starches, fibre - Lipids aka fats (long energy source) o Cholesterol, saturated fats, unsaturated fats - Proteins o Made from amino acids The 6 Essential Nutrients: The Micronutrients - Vitamins - Minerals o Ex: iron needed in blood to carry hemoglobin o Calcium needed in bones Nutrient Functions - Energy (kilocalories) o Fats (9kcal/g) o Carbohydrates (4kcal/g) o Protein (4kcal/g) - Body structure o Fats, carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and water Non- Essential Nutrients that are Beneficial to Health - Cancer o Garlic + broccoli containing sulfur phytochemicals that can inactivating carcinogens or stimulating body’s defense o Soybeans o Flavonoids (purple grapes / berries reduce risk) - Cell damage o Yellow- orange fruits/ veggies rich in carotenoids phytochemicals may prevent oxygen damaging cells Nutrient in Health and Disease - Malnutrition: lack of nutrients (fatigue, dizziness) o Undernutrition o Overnutrition - Leading causes of death in Canada diet related: cancer, heart disease, stroke, diabetes Diet and Gene Interactions - Genes: + or – in chances of getting conditions (obesity, high bp) - Nutrients and food intake can influence it o Eating healthy + exercise, key to prevention Choosing a healthy diet - Variety of foods - Moderation: not too much or too little - Balance: energy in / out, healthy vs non healthy choices, nutrient The Study of Nutrition - Scientific method o Experimental Studies  Controls everything, changes one thing, contribute to one substance, more reliable  Usually 2 groups of similar subjects  Treatment group: undergoes treatment  Control group: does not undergo treatment, may receive placebo  Observes differences o Epidemiological studies  Not perfect, don’t do or change anything, just observes  Observations b/w diet and health and/differ pops  Association DOES NOT EQUAL causation Judging for yourself - Testimonies not proof; ask yourself: make sense? Source? Selling something? Stood test of time? Chapter 2: Guidelines for a healthy diet Nutritional Status - Balance of nutrients to support body function + structure o Determine typical food intake (record it) o Analyze nutrient intake (what’s in it) o Evaluate physical health o Consider medical history o Assess with laboratory tests Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) - Reference values for # of energy, nutrients and other food components to reduce rates / promote health/ min deficiency RDA= recommended daily allowance EAR= estimated average requirement UL= upper limit Adequate Intakes (AIs) used as a goal when no RDA exists. AI values are an approximation of the nutrient intake that sustains health. Recommendations for Energy intake • Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) Men = 662 - (9.53 x age [y]) + PA x {(15.91 x weight [kg]) + (539.6 x height [m])} Women = 354 - (6.91 x age [y]) + PA x {(9.36 x weight [kg]) + (726 x height [m])} • Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) • *The PA coefficient is based on the level of activity performed in a day. • For women- it ranges from 1 (sedentary) to 1.45 (Very active) • For men it ranges from 1 – 1.48 AMDR (Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges) Macronutrient % Total Calories Protein 10-35% Fat 20-35% Carbohydrates 45-65% Canadian Food Guide - Controversy industry driven - Recommended energy intake too high - Not practical  3 oz. meat ≈ a deck of cards  1.5 oz. of cheese ≈ 3 dominoes  1 cup ≈ a baseball  1 tsp. ≈ tip of thumb  1 medium fruit ≈ 1 tennis ball  2 tablespoons ≈ golf ball or shot glass Green: 1) One dark green (broccoli) / one orange veggie per day (carrot) 2) Choose veggies/ fruit prepared with little or no added fat, sugar, salt 3) Veggies + fruit often than juice Yellow: 1) At least half grain products to whole grain each day 2) Choose grains low in fat, sugar or salt Blue: 1) Drink skin, 1% or 2% each day 2) Lower fat milk alternatives Red: 1) Meat alternatives such as beans, lentils and tofu often 2) Two Food Guide Servings of fish each week 3) Lean meat and alternatives prepared with little or no added fat / salt Children: small nutrition meals/ snacks, no food restrictions, and good role model Pregnant: folic acid, iron, addition 2 or 3 servings, and addition fruit, slice of toast Elderly: vitamin D over 50 Canadian Food labeling guidelines - Mandatory since 2003 for most packaged food o Statement of identity o Net contents of package o Name and address of manufacturer, packer, distributor o List of ingredients (descending order by weight – check 3) o Nutrition info Nutrient Content Claims - High fibre, no trans fat, low sodium Diet Related Health Claims - Highlight characteristics of a diet that reduces chance of disease - Describe how food fits in diet - A healthy diet rich in a variety of veggies and fruit may help reduce the risk of some types of cancer - A healthy diet low in saturated fats and trans fat may reduce the risk of heart disease is low in saturated fat Should Menu Labeling be mandatory in Canada? Opponents: Proponents: Consumers don’t want or need it Surveys support wanting labeling and because consumers underestimate their calorie intake Available on websites, brochures, Not everyone has access to online, posters, food containers and tray liners some fast food places see facts after purchase Not accurate due to people customize People customize will understand it will food be different, have a general idea Not government’s role Government requires packaged foods and consumers expect to have some info available when making choices Not going to solve obesity No solution to obesity, practical step solving obesity Reprint expensive One time cost Nature Health Products (alternatives) - Include multivitamins, probiotics, amino acid, isolates, vitamin water - Regulated by National Health Products Directorate (under health Canada) - Differ labeling Chapter 3: Digestion: From Meals to Molecules Atoms: molecules >cells> tissues> organs> organ systems> organism - 11 organs in body Digestive System - Digestion (break down foods into smaller pieces) + absorption (before entering blood stream/lymphatic system) - Sugars, amino acids, fatty acids can be absorbed into the body, but polysaccharides, proteins and lipids cannot (in the form they are consumed) Digestive Tract - Transit time through the DT is typically 24-72 hours. - Varies with diet, physical activity, emotional state, health status and medication use. - Enzymes: catalyzing condensation and hydrolysis reactions Enzymes: protein speed up reaction rate in DT Condensation: brings two smaller molecules together to form a larger one; water is released Hydrolysis: uses water to break down larger molecules into smaller ones The Mouth • Chemical digestion: Saliva (begins breakdown when food enters) Enzymes: Salivar
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