BPK 110 Study Guide - Final Guide: Dietary Fiber, Portal Vein, Phospholipid

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LECTURE 5 – FAT, PHOSPHOLIPIDS, AND STEROLS
Triglycerides
-Main dietary lipid; makes up most of lipids in foods and bodies
-Hydrophobic
- Structure
o3 fatty acids (lipid molecules) + 3 glycerol (hydrophobic molecules)
oFA: diff. length, saturation, geometric organization = do diff things!
- Two other types of lipids:
oPhospholipids and sterols
oPresent in body in smaller amts
- Two types of fatty acids:
oSaturated
No double bond; saturated w/ hydrogen atoms
Long-chain, mid-chain, and short-chain
Solid @ room temp
oUnsaturated
One+ double bond
Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated (omega-3 and -6)
Liquid @ room temp
Saturated Fats
- No double bond; saturated w/ hydrogens
- Solid @ room temp
- Long-chain SFA
oAnimal products
oRisk of CVD; increased levels of LDL (“bad” cholesterol)
oAbsorbed thru portal vein > lymph
- Mid-chain SFA
o6-12 carbons
oTropical oils
oHealthier
oRelatively water soluble
oQuickly digested > blood stream (NOT LYMP) > BYPASS peripheral fat tissue >
oLess likely stored; used for fuel more quickly than long-chain SFA
- Short-chain SFA
o<6 carbons
oHealthier
oMade when dietary fibre fermented in colon
oColonic health; reduce CVD risk
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Unsaturated Fats
- Liquid @ room temp; plants, fish
- Monounsaturated
oSingle double bond
o+ve effect on LDL (but new research questions this)
- Polyunsaturated
oLinoleic acid (omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (omega-3)
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
Humans CAN’T synthesize double-bond FAs in OMEGA-6/-3; SO linoleic
and a-linolenic are ESSENTIAL
Must be consumed in diet
oOmega-6
Linoleic acid
DHA
oOmega-3
A-linoleic acid
Arachidonic acid
Essential Fatty Acid Functions
- Polyunsaturated
- Omega-6
oLinoleic acid
- Omega-3
oA-linoleic acid, arachidonic acid
- Functions:
oForm phospholipids, give cell membrane structure
Growth, skin, fertility, eye retina, CNS, RBC structure
oNormal brain activity
oRegulate FAs and glucose metabolism
oMake eicosanoids
Regulate blood clotting, blood pressure, immune functions, etc.
Eicosanoids
- Made by essential FAs
- Effects depends on essential FA that made it
- Derived from omega-3 FA
oVasodilation (dilation of blood vessels; decrease blood pressure)
oInhibit blood clotting
oReduce inflammation
- Derived from omega-6 FA
oVasoconstriction (constrict blood vessels; increase blood pressure)
oPromote blood clotting
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