BPK 111 final notes.docx

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110

UNIT 6 GlossaryAsymptomatic carrier a person or other organism host that has contracted an infectious disease and is capable of spreading the infection to others but does not show or suffer symptoms of illness or diseaseCommensalism a relationship where one species benefits and the other species neither benefits nor is harmedDisease a situation that develops after infection when the parasitepathogen causes clinical manifestations symptoms such as fever nausea pain etc in the hostEgress the act of exiting or going outEndospore spore the inactive or dormant structure of some rod shaped bacteria that is formed when conditions are unfavourableFomitean inanimate object that may act as a carrier of diseaseFoodborne illness the sickness that some people experience when they eat contaminated food although in this case the etiologic agent has not been identified andor the underlying biology is not fully understoodFoodborne disease the sickness that some people experience when they eat contaminated food although in this case the etiologic agent has been identifiedFoodborne infection illness caused by eating food that contains living diseasecausing microorganismsFood intoxication illness caused by eating food that contains a harmful chemical or toxinInfection the establishment of a hostparasite relationshipMutualisma relationship where both species benefitParasitisma relationship where only one species benefits and the other species is somehow harmedPrinciple modes of transmission ways in which disease can be transmitted persontoperson foodborne consumption of contaminated food fomites inanimate objects airborne aerosols or droplets vectorborne other organisms waterborne consumption of contaminated water etcToxin mediated infectiontoxicoinfection illness caused by eating food that contains harmful microorganisms that produce a toxin once they get inside the human intestinal tractVegetative cella cell that is capable of actively growing Learning OutcomesBy the end of this unit you should be able to1Compare and contrast the different types of foodborne illnesses specifically food intoxication toxicoinfection and food infectionFood intoxication where a chemical or natural toxin often produced as a byproduct of bacteria present in the foodknown as an exotoxin causes your symptoms or illnessAn intoxication results when a person eats foodcontaining toxins that cause illness Toxins are produced by harmful microorganisms the result of a chemical contamination or are naturally part of a plant or seafoodSome bacteria cause an intoxication Viruses and parasites do not cause foodborne intoxicationThe foodborne bacteria that cause intoxication are Clostridium botulinum Staphylococcus aureus Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereusChemicals that can cause an intoxication include cleaning products sanitizers pesticides and metalsFoodborne infection where the microorganism itself grows inside your body and is the source of your symptomsfood containing harmful microorganisms which then grow in the intestinal tract and cause illness Some bacteria all viruses and all parasites cause foodborne illness via infectionThe foodborne bacteria that cause infection are Salmonella spp Listeria monocytogenes Campylobacter jejuni Vibrio parahaemolyticus Vibrio vulnificus and Yersinia enterocoliticaToxicoinfection term used to describe a disease from microorganisms producing toxins in the lumen of the gut after being consumed opposed to foodborne intoxications where the toxin is preformed in the food prior to consumption A toxinmediated infection is when a person eats food containing harmful bacteria While in the intestinal tract the bacteria produce toxins that cause illness Some bacteria cause toxinmediated infection Viruses and parasites do not cause a toxinmediated infectionThe foodborne bacteria that cause toxinmediated infection are Shigella spp And Shiga toxinproducing Escherichia coliThe symptoms of food infection and food intoxication are similar2Understand the difference between an infection and a disease with respect to a host and parasiteInfection is a symbiotic relationship between a parasite and hostWhen the nature of this relationship causes harmful changes in the host and infectious disease developsThus the term infection describes the establishment of a host parasite relationshipDisease is when the parasite causes clinical manifestations in the hostIn this case a parasite is also called a pathogen 3Explain the three types of symbiotic relationships between microorganisms and plants and animalsSymbiosis refers to relationships between organisms of different species that show an intimate association with ech othersymbiotic relationships provide at least one of the participating species with a nutritional advantageaParasitismInteraction in which one organism the parasite derives nourishment from the other organism the hostParasites are therefore chenoautotrophs
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