Kin110_Final Exam Study Q & A (Pre-Midterm).docx

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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Gina Whitaker

Final Exam Study Questions Weeks 1-5 (pre-midterm) The following questions cover the material from weeks 1-5 that is examinable on the final. The questions on the exam may not be worded exactly as below, but if you answer the questions here correctly, you will be able to answer the specific questions on the exam. Week 1 (Chapter 1 and 2) Define nutrient density. Give an example of two foods that contrast in their nutrient density Nutrient Density-a measure of nutrients provided by food relative to its calorie content Less processed food = more nutrient density Orange juice and cola Know the kcal/g values of all the macronutrients so that you are able to calculate energy content of each in a food Carbohydrates 4kcal/g Lipids 9kcal/g Protein 4kcal/g Alcohol 7kcal/g Calorie = kilocalorie = 1000 calories Name the top three diet-related causes of death in Canada Cancer, heart disease, stroke Week 2 (Chapter 3) Describe carbohydrate digestion and absorption. Include the events that occur (including enzymes involved) in the mouth, stomach and small intestine. Know the names of all the disaccharides, the enzymes that break them down and what monosaccarides they produce Carbohydrate Digestion In the mouth, the enzyme salivary amylase starts breaking starch into shorter polysaccharides In the stomach, salivary amylase is inactivated by acid so no carbohydrate digestion occurs In the small intestine, most starch digestion and breakdown of disaccharides occur. Here pancreatic amylase completes the job of breaking down starch into disaccharides and short chains of sugar units called oligosaccharides At the villi of the small intestine, enzymes attached to the microvilli complete the digestion of carbohydrates. Here, disaccharides and oligosaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides In the large intestine, fiber and other indigestible carbohydrates are partially broken down by bacteria to form fatty acids and gas. Some fiber is excreted in the feces Carbohydrate Absorption Monosaccharides travel from the capillaries of the small intestine via the portal vein to the liver Liver uses fructose and galactose for energy Disaccharides and Monosaccharides Produced Maltose-made of two glucose molecules linked together; broken down by the enzyme maltase Sucrose-made up of glucose linked to fructose; broken down by the enzyme sucrase Lactose-made of glucose linked to galactose; broken down by the enzyme lactase Week 3 (Chapter 4) What is the difference between refined and unrefined carbohydrates? Which is better for you and why? Unrefined carbohydrates-sources eaten in their natural form or with minimal processing Refined carbohydrates-processed to remove coarse parts of the food Unrefined carbohydrates are better for you because no nutrients are removed Why is soluble fiber known as the heart healthy fiber and insoluble fiber known to promote intestinal health? Hint: consider the functions of each Soluble fiber binds to bile which helps decrease cholesterol absorption Insoluble fiber speeds transit time through the GI tract, delays glucose absorption and increases fecal weight and soften feces to prevent constipation reducing risk of hemorrhoids (swelling of veins in the rectal or anal area), diverticulitis and appendicitis What is the main source of fuel for most cells in the body and which macronutrient does it come from? Glucose which comes from carbohydrates Describe the 3 fates of glucose in the body in terms of its use and storage (what form is it stored in and where). Be brief and specific Glucose is either Used for energy in the liver Stored as liver glycogen Delivered to other body tissues for energy and storage -blood glucose levels The liver can also convert sugars into lipids Name 3 physiological complications of type 2 diabetes Damage to large blood vessels leads to Increased risk of stroke High blood pressure and increased risk of heart attack Blocked arteries in legs Reduced blood flow to the feet, causing sores which heal slowly or not at all. Infections are common because high
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