Kin110_Vitamin & Minerals Chart.docx

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Simon Fraser University
Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 110
Gina Whitaker

Water Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Sources Major Functions Deficiency diseases and Toxicity symptoms symptoms; groups at risk (if any) Thiamin Whole and enriched Coenzyme in glucose and energy Beriberi: weakness, fatigue, nerve None grains, pork, legumes, metabolism degeneration, heart changes nuts, liver, watermelon Neurotransmitter synthesis-the Alcoholics metabolism of other sugars and amino acids and, the synthesis of ribose (part of RNA) and deoxyribose (part of DNA) Riboflavin Dairy products, whole Coenzyme in energy metabolism Inflammation of mouth and None and enriched grains, Helps convert other vitamins tongue, skin, eyes, digestive tract leafy greens, meat into their active form Cracked lips Sensitivity to light Niacin Meat, fish, peanuts, Coenzyme in energy metabolism Pellagra: dermatitis, diarrhea, Flushing, nausea, rash, whole and enriched Lipid synthesis and breakdown dementia, death tingling extremities grains Limited corn based diets Can be synthesized Alcoholics from tryptophan Pantothenic Meats, eggs, whole Forms part of coenzyme A None Acid grains, legumes which is involved in over 100 metabolic reactions Biotin Liver, egg yolks, soy Coenzyme in energy metabolism Nausea, thinning air, loss of hair None beans, fish, whole Glucose and fatty acid synthesis color, red skin rash, depression grains Fatty acid and amino acid Those consuming large amounts Can be synthesized by breakdown of raw egg whites colonic bacteria Vitamin B6 Meat, fish, poultry, Coenzyme in protein and amino Microcytic anemia, nerve Nerve damage (pyridoxal liver acid metabolism damage, impaired immune phosphate) Neurotransmitter and function, poor growth hemoglobin synthesis Alcoholics, elderly Folate Leafy greens, legumes, Coenzyme in DNA synthesis and Macrocytic anemia, neural tube Masks Vitamin B12 enriched grains amino acid metabolism defects, inflammation of tongue, deficiency diarrhea, poor growth Pregnant women Vitamin B12 Animal products Coenzyme in fatty acid Pernicious anemia, macrocytic None metabolism anemia, nerve damage Myelin maintenance Vegans Coverts homocysteine to Elderly with stomach or intestinal methionine (with folate) disease Vitamin C Citrus fruits, berries, Synthesis and maintenance of Scurvy: poor wound healing, Nausea, abdominal peppers collagen (connective tissue) bleeding gums, tooth loss, joint cramps, diarrhea Synthesis of various pain, bleeding into the skin and neurotransmitters, hormones, mucous membrane and fatigue bile acids, and carnitine Acts as an antioxidant Choline Egg yolks, broccoli, Synthesis of cell membranes Sweating, low blood nuts, wheat germ and neurotransmitters pressure, liver damage Synthesis in the body Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamin Sources Major Functions Deficiency disease symptoms; Toxicity Symptoms groups at risk (if any) Vitamin A Retinol: liver, fish, Vision Xerophthalmia: night blindness Headache, vomiting, hair fortified milk, eggs Cell differentiation Keratinization: drying and loss, liver damage, skin Carotenoids: carrots, Reproduction and Growth hardening of cornea changes, bone fractures, leafy greens, sweet Antioxidants (carotenoids only) Dry rough scaly skin, impaired birth defects potatoes, broccoli immune function Hypercarotenemia (non People living in poverty toxic)-accumulation of People who consume low-fat or carotenoids in the low-protein diets adipose tissue causing yellow-orange skin Vitamin D Egg yolk, liver, fatty fisAbsorption of calcium and Rickets in children: bones bent Hypercalcemia: calcium and fish oils, fortified phosphorus, bone maintenance inward as they fail to calcify builds up in tissues milk Osteomalacia: weakened bones causing calcification Synthesis from sunlight Kidney damage Vitamin E Vegetable oils, Antioxidant: protects cell Nerve damage, hemolytic
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