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Study Guide

BPK 140- Midterm Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 93 pages long!)


Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 140
Professor
Stephen Brown
Study Guide
Midterm

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SFU
BPK 140
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Chapter 1: Concept of Health
Indicators of health
How to measure health?
A traditional perspective is life and death
1. Infant mortality rate (IMR)
- The number of deaths of liveborn children under one year of age per 1000 live births
- Comparisons between populations are useful (ex. Canada has 4.6 while india has 38)
- IMR fell by half from 1990-2010
- Trends shows changes over time
2. Life expectancy
- Life expectancy at birth ex. Canada (2014) = 82 years
- Most common health measurement
Or
- Remaining life expectancy
3. Illness (morbidity)
How common or frequent?
- Texts often use morbidity to refer to chronic incapacitating disease states. Morbidity
rates expressed as % or per 1000,000 population per year
- Ex. 6.8% of Canadians have diabetes = 6800 per 100000
4. Death (mortality)
- Death rates usually per 100,000 population per year
- Ex. heart disease mortality rate in Canada in 2011 is 92 per 100,000 population
Age standardized morbidity, mortality
- Many disease are more common in older people
- Population are aging, having higher % of older people
- Age standardization corrects statistically, so you can see the trend over time
independent of the aging factor
A model is a representation or way of looking at thing
The Illness model
Health = absence of disease
- If there is sign or symptoms of disease, doctors use treatment
- When signs and symptoms are fixed, intervention stops
- Medical model: scientifical empirical approach to form a specific diagnosis based on
symptoms of the disorder
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Risk factor model
- Still defines health as absence of disease
- Goes beyond detection and treatment of diseases; tries to prevent disease
- Strengths:
- At the individual level: can motivate people to change behaviour to reduce risk
- At the community level: can target high-risk groups and target prevention or early
detection towards them
- Health care provider level: physicians can raise awareness to others
Empowerment: helping people to help themselves, rather than doing things for them
Holistic Model/Wellness model
- Many things affect health, not just personal health behaviours or medical care
- Heath is more than the absence of disease or infirmity (disorder or frailty), but is a
complete state of mental, physical, and social well-being
- Can achieve wellness through awareness, education, and personal growth
- A complete state of OR a process of doing your best to be well
Elements of Holistic model
1. Genetics: determines birth gender and some may have genetic diseases
- Women live longer than men due to lifestyle choices (ex. Less smoking) and biology
(ex. Immune system age slower)
2. Health care: from public health promotions (ex. vaccines) to care by family physicians
and hospitals
3. Psychological factors: mental factors such as stress
4. Physical environment: quality of air, water and other factors
5. Social factors: employment, education, income, marital status, housing, community
engagement, religion etc
6. Personal health behavior: live average 14 years longer if:
- Not smoking
- Drinking moderately
- Keeping physically active
- Eating 5 servings of fruits and vegetables
7. Political factors: laws, wars, discrimination
6 Dimensions of Wellness
1. Physical: body functions, physical fitness, activities of daily living
2. Social: ability to have satisfying relations
3. Emotional: self-esteem and self-efficacy
4. Mental/intellectual: ability to think clearly, to reason
5. Environmental: appreciation of the external environment and your context within it
6. Spiritual: meaning and purpose (ex. Nature, art, religion, environmentalism, activism)
7. Occupational
Your definition of health influences
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