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BPK 140 Study Guide - One-Repetition Maximum, Osteoporosis, Fembot

11 Pages
Fall 2013

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 140
Mandana Salajegheh

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Physical activity for health, fitness, and performance
Almost 50% of Canadian population is considered physically inactive
Only 21% of teens are sufficiently active for optimal growth and development
Males are more likely to be active than females at all ages
Canadian children are more active than adolescents, who are more active than adults
Physical activity: body movements produced by skeletal muscles resulting in energy
Exercise: planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one
or more component of physical fitness
Benefits of physical activity for health, can reduced risk of:
cardiovascular diseases by about 80%
hypertensions: normal blood pressure = 120/80 mm Hg
ochronic high BP > 140/90 mmHg
oex. High blood pressure
Osteoporosis: loss of bone density
premature death
Health components of physical fitness includes:
Cardiovascular fitness
Musculoskeletal strength
Musculoskeletal endurance
Body composition
Performance components of physical activity:
Exercises undertaken to increase power, agility, speed, coordination, balance and other aspects of
Physical Activity for fitness:
Requires particular exercises for a particular length of time at a specific intensity and for a certain
number of times each week
Health Canada recommends 60 minutes of light effort physically activity or exercise per day to
maintain or improve health
Improved cardiovascular endurance:
Reduced risk of heart diseases
Prevention of hypertension
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure
Improved blood lipids and lipoprotein profile
Tri: not good
LDL: bad cholesterol
HDL: good cholesterol, type of lipids in fat not in food
Improved bone health
and osteoporosis: cartilage disorder (ex. Joints, knee caps)
Trans fatty acids
Benefits of regular physical activity
Improved weight management:
Direct effect on metabolic rate
People who eat a lot and don’t get fat have higher metabolic rates, they require more calories per
day and are able to burn off the excess energy

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Physical activity for health, fitness, and performance • Almost 50% of Canadian population is considered physically inactive • Only 21% of teens are sufficiently active for optimal growth and development • Males are more likely to be active than females at all ages • Canadian children are more active than adolescents, who are more active than adults Physical activity: body movements produced by skeletal muscles resulting in energy  expenditure Exercise: planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one  or more component of physical fitness Benefits of physical activity for health, can reduced risk of: • cardiovascular diseases by about 80% • diabetes • cancer • hypertensions: normal blood pressure = 120/80 mm Hg  o chronic high BP > 140/90 mmHg o ex. High blood pressure • obesity • depression • Osteoporosis: loss of bone density • premature death Health components of physical fitness includes: Cardiovascular fitness Musculoskeletal strength Musculoskeletal endurance Flexibility Body composition Performance components of physical activity: Exercises undertaken to increase power, agility, speed, coordination, balance and other aspects of  performance Physical Activity for fitness: Requires particular exercises for a particular length of time at a specific intensity and for a certain  number of times each week Health Canada recommends 60 minutes of light effort physically activity or exercise per day to  maintain or improve health Improved cardiovascular endurance: Reduced risk of heart diseases Prevention of hypertension Systolic and diastolic blood pressure Improved blood lipids and lipoprotein profile Tri: not good LDL: bad cholesterol HDL: good cholesterol, type of lipids in fat not in food Improved bone health Osteoarthritis:  and osteoporosis: cartilage disorder (ex. Joints, knee caps) Trans fatty acids Benefits of regular physical activity Improved weight management: Direct effect on metabolic rate People who eat a lot and don’t get fat  have higher metabolic rates, they require more calories per  day and are able to burn off the excess energy Energy may be used for heart to pump blood etc EER = BMR + TEF + PA 60­70% of energy we consume goes to BMR Improved health and life span: Prevention of type 2 diabetes Increased longevity Improved immunity to disease J­shaped curve Improved mental health and stress management Improving cardiorespiratory endurance Cardiorespiratory Endurance: ability of heart, lungs, and blood vessels to function  efficiently Aerobic Power: Maximum aerobic power: VO2 max Graded exercise test: test of aerobic capacity administered by a physician, exercise physiologist or  other trained person Determining exercise frequency examples: Running, swimming,  Determining exercise intensity: Target heart rate (70­90% HR max) HR max = (220/226, m/f) – Age Determining exercise time: 20­30 minutes Frequency, Intensity, or time?: First increase frequency, then length, then intensity Improving muscular strength and endurance Muscular strength and endurance: Musculoskeletal health: strength, endurance, flexibility Muscular strength One repetition maximum (1RM) Muscular endurance: ability of muscles to produce certain amount of force Principles of strength development 1. The tension principle: must produce tension 2. The overload principle: most important if you want to improve the strength of  your muscles i. Ex. Goal to lift is 40 lbs, start practicing at 20 lbs and add a few pounds every  time when you feel comfortable to ii. Muscles will get bigger 3. The specificity of training principle 4. The recovery principle Types of muscle contractions: 1. Isometric contraction: joint/muscle doesn’t move 2. Concentric contractions: muscle shortens a. Ex. Sit ups 3. Eccentric contraction: muscle lengthens Methods of providing resistance Body weight resistance: ex. Push ups (no equipment required) Fixed resis
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