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Midterm

# BPK 142 Midterm: Biomechanics

Department
Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 142
Professor
Brent Flodin
Study Guide
Midterm

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Week #6: Biomechanics
1. Which lever classes do a golf club, a swinging door, and a shovel belong to?
Golf club: 3 axis, force, resistance
Shovel: 3 axis, force, resistance
Swinging door: 2 axis, resistance, force
2. How much force must be produced by the biceps brachii, attached at 90 degrees
to the radius at 4.0 centimeters from the centre of rotation of the elbow joint, to
support a weight of 95 newtons held in the hand at a distance of 32 cm from the
elbow joint? Assume that the forearm and hand have a combined weight of 35
newtons and that their center of gravity is located 17 cm from the elbow joint.
F =?
FA = 4.0 cm
R = 95 N (weight)
RA = 32 cm
F x 4.0 cm = (95 N x 32 cm) + (35 N x 17 cm)
F = 908.75 N
3. Is the mechanical advantage of a first class lever greater than, less than, or equal
to one?
Depends. Can be either. If FA > RA, then >1. If FA < RA, then < 1. If FA = RA, then = 1.
4. Describe the various stance phase events and swing phase events during a gait
cycle.
Stance phase:
Heel strike: initiates stance phase. Heel hits floor.
Foot-flat: plantar surface of foot hits the ground.
Mid-stance: swinging foot passes stance foot.
Heel-off: heel loses contact with ground and push off is initiated by gastrocnemius and soleus
(plantar flexion).
Toe-off: foot leaves ground
Swing phase:
Acceleration: foot leaves ground. Hip flexor muscles accelerate leg forward.
Mid-swing: foot passes directly beneath the body.
Deceleration: muscles slow the leg and stabilize the foot.
5. As any runner changes from a slow running speed to a faster and faster running
speed he/she lands less flat-footed and more on the toes. Why?
- Lean forward 15 degrees, leans 15 degrees from the perpendicular
- Falling forward
- Increased velocity
- Acceleration phase emphasized