Biological Psychology 7edition
Website-sourced Study Questions
Chapter 14: Biological Rhythms, Sleep, and Dreaming
Sleeping and Waking
Human Sleep Exhibits Different Stages
• How much do we sleep, and when?
• We do our most vivid dreaming during REM sleep
1) The use of scalp electrodes to detect brain electrical activity is called EEG, which is short
for electroencephalography. The recording of muscular activity is called EMG, which
is short for electromyography. Eye movements occurring during sleep are recorded
using EOG, which is short for electro-oculography. Used together, these techniques
revealed to researchers that there are two main classes of sleep: slow-wave sleep,
abbreviated SWS, and REM sleep.
2) A person moving from complete wakefulness to full sleep progresses through four
distinct stages of SWS. Complete the following table, giving the EEG characteristics of
Sleep stage EEG characteristics Behavioral/physiological characteristics
Fully awake 15 to 20 Hz beta activity Normal awake behavior
Stage 1 SWS 9 to 12 Hz alpha rhythm Eyes closed, heart rate slowed, eyes rolling
Stage 2 SWS 12 to 14 Hz sleep spindles Unresponsive
Stage 3 SWS large amplitude delta waves, 1 per None
3) REM occurs about 1 hour after sleep onset and is marked by a brief return to stage 2
SWS and then the sudden appearance of desynchronized fast activity with an EEG that
looks like the recording of someone who is awake. However, the muscles of the body are
flaccid. Heart and respiratory rates increase, and the eyes begin to show rapid
coordinated movements similar to those in the awake state. It is in this state that most
dreams have been reported.
4) REM dreams are likely recalled as a story True, as thoughts about problems False, as
visual imagery True, and with a sense of “being there.” SWS dreams tend to be recalled
as a story False, as thoughts about problems True, and as visual imagery False.
Manipulating Sleep Reveals an Underlying Structure
• Sleep deprivation drastically alters sleep patterns
1 1) Early work likened the effects of sleep deprivation to the symptoms of schizophrenia.
Compared to normal people, people with this disease show comparable sleep patterns,
and deprivation does not affect their symptoms.
2) Some common consequences of long-term sleep deprivation in humans include which of
a. Sleepiness True
b. Hallucinations False
c. Irritability True
d. Disorientation True
e. Depression False
f. Poor concentration True
g. Hair loss False
h. Hunger False
3) People with the disease called fatal familial insomnia stop sleeping in midlife and die
after a period of 7 to 24 months. Postmortem examination of the brain has revealed that
these patients often have degeneration in the thalamus, which may be responsible for the
4) Short-term REM debts are repaid through longer-than-normal REM episodes on
subsequent nights. Longer-term REM debts may be repaid through more intense REM
episodes during the recovery period.
What Are the Biological Functions of Sleep?
• Sleep conserves energy
• Sleep enforces niche adaptation
• Sleep restores the body
• Does sleep aid memory consolidation?
• Some humans sleep remarkably little, yet function normally
1) Four possible reasons that we sleep are to conserve energy, to avoid predators, to restore
the body, and to consolidate memories.
2) Intense physical activity, which one would assume to require more restoration, does not
produce longer sleep periods. However, growth hormone is correlated with sleep, and
sleep deprivation over long periods leads to suppression of the immune system, illness,
3) Jenkins and Dallenbach found that verbal learning was better when a night of sleep—
rather than 8 hours of being awake—was interposed between learning and recall. Three
possible explanations for these results are: (1) Experiences occurring in the awake
condition may interfere with learning; (2) Memory, which tends to decay under any
conditions, may do so more slowly during sleep; (3) Sleep may actively promote the
consolidation of memories.
4) The importance of REM for learning can be studied by presenting subjects with a
learning task and then awakening them after normal REM-sleep cycles. It has been
reported that a person with a brainstem injury that abolished REM sleep could complete
his education, suggesting that REM sleep is not absolutely necessary for learning.