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BPK 143 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Gluteus Maximus Muscle, Shoulder Joint, Biceps Curl

Biomedical Physio & Kines
Course Code
BPK 143
Tony Leyland
Study Guide

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Chapter 1
1. Complete the following relationship: genotype + <??> = phenotype
2. Provide as complete a definition of fitness as possible.
ability to do every day activities without undergoing fatigue, and to have
ample energy left over for leisure time; fitness is affected by both genetics
and the environment.
3. The question ―are you fit?‖ should really only be correctly answered by the
counter- question ―fit for what?‖ Explain what I mean by this statement.
Fitness can be divided up into several components. A person can be very
fit to do cardiovascular endurance activities, but not as fit to do muscle
strength activities. It really depends on the person’s training exercises. For
example, a 100 m Olympic runner will be very fit when it comes to
cardiovascular endurance activities, but they may not be capable of lifting
a lot of weight. If a person asks you if you are fit, you can only really
answer ―fit for what?‖ because a simple yes or no answer will be too
general to be considered a correct answer. Simply put, performing
different activities results in different types of fitness.
4. What is the difference between infectious and chronic diseases? Which are
more prevalent today?
Infectious diseases are environmentally transmitted, while chronic
diseases are developed through time by poor lifestyle choices. The more
prevalent disease today are chronic diseases such as diabetes and
Alzheimer’s disease.
5. Describe the components of physical fitness.
There are 2 key components of physical fitness. The first is the health-
related components and the second is the performance related
components. The health related components include cardiovascular
endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, body composition, and
flexibility. The performance-related components include power, speed and
quickness, agility, balance, and motor skill.
6. What are the basic differences between health-related and performance-
related components of physical fitness.
Health related components refer to physical fitness components that will
benefit the health of the individual. Working on these components will
prevent health problems and conditions. Performance-related components
of physical fitness focus on the performance of the exercise used to work
the health related components of physical fitness.

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7. I argued that separation of components into health-related and performance-
related may not be an ideal model. Give one of my arguments on this topic.
These performance-related components can also be very beneficial to
your health, and to categorize them into two different categories may be
misleading to the general public. When lists are separated into categories,
a hierarchy is often put on one or the other, and in this case, it is put on
health-related components. This will lead the public to think that
performance is only important for sports fanatics. However, certain
performance-related components, such as balance, can also be crucial to
a person’s health.
8. List any 7 of the 10 general physical skills.
Respiratory/ Cardiovascular endurance
Stamina (Muscular endurance)
9. Physical activity can reduce the risk of an individual developing many
diseases. Name three such diseases.
Ischaemic heart disease
Trachea, Bronchus, lung cancers
Alzheimer’s disease
Breast cancer
Diabetes mellitus
10. A friend asks you, ―how much exercise is ideal?‖ Provide a brief response to
this question. Try to quote some physiological evidence in your answer.
Ideally, try to exercise 3-5 days a week. You don’t have to set aside an
hour to exercise, even 2 ten minute workout sessions in a day would be
very beneficial to your body. If you can’t find the time for that, studies
show that you will receive health benefits from exercising even if you only
do 500 calories of exercise a week.
11. Explain the ―open window‖ theory.
There are natural killer cells in your body. As you exercise, these natural
killer cells activate. When you rest, these cells need to return to their
natural state. When you do moderate exercise, the cells can return to their
natural state without an issue, however, if you do severe exercise, these
cells will be suppressed for much longer. The time in which these cells are

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suppressed to when they recover, is called the open window.
12. Compare advantages and disadvantages of experimental versus
epidemiological studies for investigating the relationship between physical
activity and health.
The advantages of experimental studies for investigating the relationship
between physical activity and health is that it is will yield reliable results
because experimental studies control all factors; therefore there is no
room for ―interpretation‖. However, doing experimental studies in this field
is unethical because it requires forcing all subjects to sleep at the same
time, eat at the same time, and have all other factors controlled. This is
simply impossible.
Epidemiological studies are less reliable because it is easy to confuse
correlation and causation. That is, just because a person with an active
lifestyle is healthier than a person with a sedentary life style, doesn’t mean
exercise causes healthier life styles. Other correlating variables, such as
diet, may be a factor as well. Epidemiological studies do have many
advantages though. These types of studies are legal, ethical, and easy to
13. What criteria should you apply to evaluate whether an epidemiological study
is valid?
The association between health and exercise must be repeatable.
The association between health and exercise must be strong
The association between health and exercise must be logical
Other obvious variables must be shown not to be the case of association
14. ―Correlation is not causation‖. Explain the meaning of this statement with
respect to research into human fitness and wellness.
Just because two variables appear to be correlated, it doesn’t mean that
one variable affects the other. For example, if a physically active group is
healthier than a sedentary group, it may be due to other variables such as
diet or smoking habits.
15. Discuss the process you would adopt to change a personal behavior.
Select one target behavior change.
Make a weekly, monthly, etc schedule that will slowly help me achieve that
Commit to the schedule
16. Describe the important steps in developing a fitness plan. ?? (not sure how
to answer this)
Select one target behavior change.
Set a measurable goal.
Create a weekly plan to reach that goal.
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