1.Complete the following relationship: genotype + ?> = phenotype
2.Provide as complete a definition of fitness as possible.
ability to do every day activities without undergoing fatigue, and to have
ample energy left over for leisure time; fitness is affected by both genetics
and the environment.
3.The question ―are you fit?‖ should really only be correctly answered by the
counter- question ―fit for what?‖ Explain what I mean by this statement.
Fitness can be divided up into several components. A person can be very
fit to do cardiovascular endurance activities, but not as fit to do muscle
strength activities. It really depends on the person’s training exercises. For
example, a 100 m Olympic runner will be very fit when it comes to
cardiovascular endurance activities, but they may not be capable of lifting
a lot of weight. If a person asks you if you are fit, you can only really
answer ―fit for what?‖ because a simple yes or no answer will be too
general to be considered a correct answer. Simply put, performing
different activities results in different types of fitness.
4.What is the difference between infectious and chronic diseases? Which are
more prevalent today?
Infectious diseases are environmentally transmitted, while chronic
diseases are developed through time by poor lifestyle choices. The more
prevalent disease today are chronic diseases such as diabetes and
5.Describe the components of physical fitness.
There are 2 key components of physical fitness. The first is the health-
related components and the second is the performance related
components. The health related components include cardiovascular
endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, body composition, and
flexibility. The performance-related components include power, speed and
quickness, agility, balance, and motor skill.
6.What are the basic differences between health-related and performance-
related components of physical fitness.
Health related components refer to physical fitness components that will
benefit the health of the individual. Working on these components will
prevent health problems and conditions. Performance-related components
of physical fitness focus on the performance of the exercise used to work
the health related components of physical fitness. 7.I argued that separation of components into health-related and performance-
related may not be an ideal model. Give one of my arguments on this topic.
These performance-related components can also be very beneficial to
your health, and to categorize them into two different categories may be
misleading to the general public. When lists are separated into categories,
a hierarchy is often put on one or the other, and in this case, it is put on
health-related components. This will lead the public to think that
performance is only important for sports fanatics. However, certain
performance-related components, such as balance, can also be crucial to
a person’s health.
8.List any 7 of the 10 general physical skills.
Respiratory/ Cardiovascular endurance
Stamina (Muscular endurance)
9.Physical activity can reduce the risk of an individual developing many
diseases. Name three such diseases.
Ischaemic heart disease
Trachea, Bronchus, lung cancers
10. A friend asks you, ―how much exercise is ideal?‖ Provide a brief response to
this question. Try to quote some physiological evidence in your answer.
Ideally, try to exercise 3-5 days a week. You don’t have to set aside an
hour to exercise, even 2 ten minute workout sessions in a day would be
very beneficial to your body. If you can’t find the time for that, studies
show that you will receive health benefits from exercising even if you only
do 500 calories of exercise a week.
11. Explain the ―open window‖ theory.
There are natural killer cells in your body. As you exercise, these natural
killer cells activate. When you rest, these cells need to return to their
natural state. When you do moderate exercise, the cells can return to their
natural state without an issue, however, if you do severe exercise, these
cells will be suppressed for much longer. The time in which these cells are suppressed to when they recover, is called the open window.
12. Compare advantages and disadvantages of experimental versus
epidemiological studies for investigating the relationship between physical
activity and health.
The advantages of experimental studies for investigating the relationship
between physical activity and health is that it is will yield reliable results
because experimental studies control all factors; therefore there is no
room for ―interpretation‖. However, doing experimental studies in this field
is unethical because it requires forcing all subjects to sleep at the same
time, eat at the same time, and have all other factors controlled. This is
Epidemiological studies are less reliable because it is easy to confuse
correlation and causation. That is, just because a person with an active
lifestyle is healthier than a person with a sedentary life style, doesn’t mean
exercise causes healthier life styles. Other correlating variables, such as
diet, may be a factor as well. Epidemiological studies do have many
advantages though. These types of studies are legal, ethical, and easy to
13. What criteria should you apply to evaluate whether an epidemiological study
The association between health and exercise must be repeatable.
The association between health and exercise must be strong
The association between health and exercise must be logical
Other obvious variables must be shown not to be the case of association
14. ―Correlation is not causation‖. Explain the meaning of this statement with
respect to research into human fitness and wellness.
Just because two variables appear to be correlated, it doesn’t mean that
one variable affects the other. For example, if a physically active group is
healthier than a sedentary group, it may be due to other variables such as
diet or smoking habits.
15. Discuss the process you would adopt to change a personal behavior.
Select one target behavior change.
Make a weekly, monthly, etc schedule that will slowly help me achieve that
Commit to the schedule
16. Describe the important steps in developing a fitness plan. ?? (not sure how
to answer this)
Select one target behavior change.
Set a measurable goal.
Create a weekly plan to reach that goal. Test if the goal is suitable to your lifestyle.
If not, change the goal, to make it more suitable.
When the goal is accomplished, set a new goal.
17. What does SMART goal setting mean?
Specific—Is the goal specific?
Do you know what, how, where, when, with whom, and how long you
will do this?
Measurable—Is it measurable?
Will you know when it is done? See preceding discussion.
Acceptable—Will you feel good about doing this?
Is this a personal goal for you or is someone else influencing your
Realistic—Are you able to do this?
Genetic characteristics, personal preferences, time, money, and so on all
play a role. It can be difficult to set realistic goals at times, but if you give your
goals careful consideration, you should be okay.
Timely—Is there a deadline attached?
Set short- and long-term goals, and create new goals once old ones are
achieved. We often do not re-evaluate our goals once we have achieved them.
18. Distinguish between physical activity and exercise.
Physical activity includes any contraction of the muscle while exercise is a
purposeful and planned form of physical activity, but we perform it with the
sole intention of acquiring health benefits.
19. Describe the four principles of physiologic conditioning.
Overload Principal – It is important that the exercise is hard enough that it
Specificity Principal – exercising a certain body part, component of the body,
or particular skill primarily develops that part or skill.sc
Reversability Principal – if you stop training, you’ll lose all that you worked
Individual differences Principal – everyone is unique, different people
respond differently to certain exercise programs.
20. In terms of aerobic training effects, what is the most important factor—
training intensity, duration, or frequency? Explain. Intensity is the most important factor. Research has shown that there is a
threshold of exercise intensity below which an optimal cardiovascular
effect will not occur. There is no threshold for duration and frequency.
21. Using the FITTness formula, describe the components of an aerobic weight-
bearing (such as running) program for a 28-year-old female. Show your
calculations regarding exercise intensity. Be specific.
Maximal heart rate 220 – 28 = 192
192 X 0.6 = 115.2
192 X 0.9 = 172.8
Target heart rate range 115.2 – 172.8
ten second heart rate range (115.2 / 5) – (172.8 / 5) = 23 – 35 bp10s
The female should exercise 3-5 times a week for at least 15 minutes, and
aim for 23 -35 beats per 10 seconds intensity rate.
22. Using the FITTness formula, describe the components of an aerobic
swimming program for a 45-year-old male. Show your calculations regarding
exercise intensity. Be specific.
Swimming is in a lower temperature and you’re lying down so you don’t
have to pump blood against gravity up to your head: instead of using 220
– age to calculate maximal heart rate, use 205 – age.
Maximal heart rate 205 – 45 = 160
160 X 0.6 = 96
160 X 0.9 = 144
Target heart rate range 96 – 144
Ten second heart rate range 19.2 – 28.8
The man should exercise 3-5 times a week for at least 15 minutes, and
aim for an intensity rate of 19.2 – 28.8 beats per 10 seconds.
23. Explain the difference between the maximal heart rate and the heart rate
reserve methods for determining exercise intensity.
The maximal heart rate method is age determined meaning that it may nor
be as accurate as the heart rate reserve method which takes your age and
your resting heart rate into account; therefore, not making your lower
range too low.
24. Define the Karvonen formula.
Maximal heart rate – resting heart rate. This formula calculates the heart
25. What does RPE mean?
Rate of perceived exertion is a scale for estimating the intensity of your
exercise: 6 being nothing at all, and 20 being maximal exertion. This is
also called the Borg scale. 26. Describe how to use the talk test.
After exercising, If you can’t carry out a conversation because you’re out
of breath, your exercise intensity is too high for sustained aerobic effect.
If you can sing, your intensity is too low.
27. Is it proper to apply an exercise prescription based on heart rate for running
and cycling to swimming? Explain.
No, because when you are swimming, you are lying down which means
blood doesn’t have to go against gravity to get to your head. Also,
swimming allows you to exercise in water, which conducts heat 25 times
greater than air. When exercising, your muscles generate heat, and your
heart pumps blood to your skin to dissipate that heat. If you’re in water,
the heart doesn’t have to work so hard to dissipate that heat.
28. List three common training errors.
Not warming up properly, Having unrealistic expectations, Not planning
29. List three symptoms of overtraining.
Chronic weight loss, over fatigue, insomnia
30. Describe some common components of a warm-up program and a good
A warm up exercise should get you warm enough to break a sweat. There
are passive warm ups and active warm ups. Passive warm ups include
taking a hot shower, or a massage. Active warm ups include stretching,
and walking. Active warm ups are usually a better warm up than passive
A cool down exercise should slowly get your heart rate down to 100 beats
per minute. A 5 minute slow jog or walk followed by stretching is usually a
good cool down exercise.
31. Describe physiological and psychological benefits of a warm-up prior to
Increases body temperature, which helps enzymes reach skeletal muscles,
and increases blood flow and oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle.
Prevents high muscle acidity early in the exercise session.
Increases the deep muscle temperature, which decreases the work of
contraction and reduces the chances of injury. Improves neural transmission for motor unit recruitment, resulting in
an improvement in contraction and reflex times of skeletal muscles.
Lessens the danger of inadequate blood flow to the heart (myocardial
ischemia) in the early stages of exercise. Abrupt, strenuous exercise may be
associated with such problems.
Provides a screening mechanism for potential musculoskeletal or
metabolic problems that may be problematic at higher exercise intensities.
Provides psychological preparation for the event (such as by increasing
arousal and focus).
32. Describe the physiological and psychological benefits of a cool-down after an
Maintains the venous return to the heart and brain. Prevents light
heartedness and fainting by preventing venous pooling and drop in blood
Maintains a large blood supply to the muscle, which will help reduce
Speeds up the removal of lactate from the working muscles. The lactate
is then used during the recovery period.
Reduces the immediate post-exercise tendency for muscles to spasm or
Allows heart rate, oxygen uptake, and body temperature to gradually return
to resting levels.
Reduces concentrations of exercise hormones. These hormones can cause
post-exercise disturbances in cardiac rhythm.
33. What does the term ―proximal‖ mean (anatomical context)?
Proximal is the closest part nearest to the head.
34. What is the name of the bone on the little finger side of the forearm?
Radius 35. Which name is given to the lowest segment of the vertebral column?
36. What is the anatomical name for the heel bone?
37. Give the proper anatomical names of the three bones that come together in
the region of the shoulder joint.
Clavical, Scapula, and Humerus
38. What is movement of a limb away from the midline of the body called?
39. What shoulder joint action is occurring during the up-phase of a bench
40. What hip joint action is occurring during the down-phase of an air squat?
41. Give the proper anatomical name of a muscle whose principal action is
flexion at the shoulder joint.
42. Which muscle causes extension at the elbow joint when it contracts?
43. Give the proper anatomical name of a muscle whose principal action is
extension at the hip joint.
Gluteus Maximus (ass muscles)
44. Give the proper anatomical name of a muscle whose principal action is
extension at the shoulder joint.
45. Give the proper anatomical name of the muscle that lifts the toes up towards
the patella (ankle dorsiflexion).
46. Give the proper anatomical name of two prime mover muscles that are used
in the shoulder (military or overhead) press weight training exercise.
47. What does the term 10-RM (ten-repetition maximum) mean in terms of
weight training? th
10 RM means that you would be unable to complete the exercise an 11
time without resting.
48. For each of the following weight training exercises, describe how to perform
the exercise, list 2 or 3 prime-mover (target) muscles that are stressed and
any key safety precautions:
Lie face down on the floor, hands slightly wider than shoulder width apart
(Shoulder Transverse extension, Elbow flexion, wrist flexion). Extend your
arms (elbow extension, shoulder horizontal flexion) to raise your straight
body off the floor. Keeping the body straight, bend your arms to lower your
body to the floor (elbow flexion). Repeat. Partner can place and steady
plate on the back if needed.
Target muscle: Pectoralis major, deltoid, and triceps
Be sure to keep your upper and lower body straight.
Lie spine on a bench, knees and hips bent (knee flexion, Hip flexion, Ankle
Plantar Flexion), head hanging off. Flex waist to raise upper torso (spine
flexion). Return until back of shoulders contacts the bench (spine
Target muscle: Rectus abdominus, Obliques
51. Biceps curl.
Grasp bar with both hands shoulder width apart (Forearm Supination).
With elbows by your side, raise bar until forearms are vertical (Elbow
flexion). Lower until arms are fully extended (Elbow extension).
Target muscle: Biceps Bronchii, Brachialis
Keep your back straight but do not overarch the back. Also, don’t put too
much weight on your barbell.
With feet flat beneath the bar, squat down (Knee flexion) and grasp bar
shoulder width apart (Forearm Pronation). Lift bar by extending Hips and
knees to full extension (hip and knee extension). Pull shoulders back at
top of lift (adduction?). Repeat
Target muscle: Erector Spindae, Gluteus Maximus, Quadriceps
Keep hips low, shoulders high, arms and BACK STRAIGHT. Knees points
the same direction as feet. Keep bar close to body.Using grip work or wrist straps can be used to enhance grip.
53. Leg extension.
Sit on apparatus, back against padded back support. Place front of lower
legs under padded lever. Position knee at same axis as lever fulcrum.
Grasp handle for support. Move lever upward by extending knees until
legs are straight (knee extension). Bend knees to return lever to original
position (Knee flexion). Repeat.
Target muscle: Quadriceps.
54. Leg curl.
Lie on bench face down with knees just beyond edge of bench. Grasp
handles. Raise lower pad to back of thighs by flexing knees (knee flexion).
Lower lever pads until knees are straight (Knee extension).
Target Muscle: Hamstrings, Gastrocnemius
Keep torso on bench to reduce hyperextension of lower back. Ankle
dorsiflexion will assist in knee flexion.
55. Leg press.
Sit on machine. Place feet on platform (Ankle dorsiflexion). Grasp
handles. Push platform away by extending knees (knee extension). Bring
platform closer by flexing knees (Knee flexion).
Target muscle: Quadriceps, Gluteus Maximus
56. Lat pull-down.
Grasp cable bar with wide grip (forearm pronation). Sit with thighs under
support. Pull down cable bar to upper chest (Shoulder adduction). Return
until arms and shoulders are fully extended (Shoulder extension).
Target muscle: Latissimus Dorsi, Deltoid, Biceps Brachii
Be sure your grip is not too wide or it will compromise your range of
57. Bench press.
Lie supine on bench. Lift barbell over upper chest using overhand grip
(forearm pronation). Lower weight to mid-chest (Shoulder transverse
extension, Elbow flexion). Press bar upward until arms are extended
(Shoulder horizontal flexion, Elbow extension). Repeat.
Target Muscle: Pectoralis Major, Deltoid, Triceps Brachii Range of motion will be compromised if grip is too wide.
58. Overhead press.
Grasp barbell from rack, overhand grip, slightly wider than shoulder width.
Bar in front of neck. Press bar up until arms extend overhead. Lower.
Target muscle: Deltoid, Triceps, Pectoralis Major
59. Back extension.
Position thighs under pad. Lower body by bending waist. Raise or extend
waist until torso is parallel to legs. Repeat
Target muscle: Erector Spinae, Gluteus Maximus, Hamstrings
60. Back squat.
First you will need to position barbell high on back of shoulders (elbow
flexion, forearm pronation, wrist extension) and then squat with your hips
bending back while knees bend forward (hip flexion, knee flexion) until
thighs are just past parallel to the floor. Stand back up again (knee
extension, ankle plantar flexion) and repeat.
Target muscle: Gluteus Maximus, Quadriceps
Remember to keep back straight and knees and feet pointed in same
direction. Distribute weight evenly through forefoot and heel.
Step up and grasp the bar with and overhand wide grip (shoulder flexion
and forearm pronation). Pull body up until chin is above bar (shoulder
adduction). Lower body until arms and shoulders are straight and repeat
Target muscles: latissimus dorsi, biceps brachii, deltoids.
When performing this exercise, make sure your grip is not too wide as the
range of motion will be compromised. Do not swing or bounce on bar.
62. Explain three safety rules that you should follow while weightlifting.
Avoid holding your breath. Break out during exertion. Breath holding
causes rise in artery blood pressure. Breath holding will cause dizziness
and fainting because lack of blood to heart. Cause a valsalva maneuver
(forced exhalation against a closed glottis)
Use a spotter for free weight exercises so you don’t drop the bar on yourself.
Check the area and make sure it’s safe to proceed w. exercise.
63. List five benefits of resistance training.
1. Increase Muscular strength
2. Increase Muscular endurance
3. Increase Strength of bones
4. Increase Muscle Mass
5. Decrease Body Fat
64. List some benefits and some disadvantages of resistance training.
Increased risk of Muscle and tendon, bone and ligament,and low
Excessive fatigue due to over training
More susceptible to temptation of steroids
Increase in flexibility, equalization of muscle development, muscle
Decrease in stress and tension, body fat, resting heart rate.
Helps to improve appearance, increase feeling of well being,
65. Define muscular power.
Ability to produce force QUICKLY. Force X speed of contraction =
power. Or force X distance = power.
66. Distinguish between muscular strength and muscular endurance.
Muscular strength is greatest amount of force, muscular endurance
is ability to perform for an extended period of time.
67. Distinguish between isokinetic, isotonic, and isometric contractions.
Isokinetic: muscle shortens or lengthens at a constant velocity
Isotonic: tension is constant (leg curls, pushups, etc)
Isometric: no change in length of muscle (stretches, planks)
68. Define the terms agonist and antagonist.
Agonist: muscle that causes the motion
Antagonist: muscle that can move the joint opposite to the
movement of agonist. (Triceps during bicep curls)
69. What is a bi-articulate muscle?
Muscle that crosses two joints 70. What are the characteristics of FOG fibres?
FOG fibres = Type IIa fibres.
FOG fibres are large, fast contraction, relaxation and nerve
conduction velocity speed.