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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

Chapter 1 1.Complete the following relationship: genotype + ?> = phenotype Environment 2.Provide as complete a definition of fitness as possible. ability to do every day activities without undergoing fatigue, and to have ample energy left over for leisure time; fitness is affected by both genetics and the environment. 3.The question ―are you fit?‖ should really only be correctly answered by the counter- question ―fit for what?‖ Explain what I mean by this statement. Fitness can be divided up into several components. A person can be very fit to do cardiovascular endurance activities, but not as fit to do muscle strength activities. It really depends on the person’s training exercises. For example, a 100 m Olympic runner will be very fit when it comes to cardiovascular endurance activities, but they may not be capable of lifting a lot of weight. If a person asks you if you are fit, you can only really answer ―fit for what?‖ because a simple yes or no answer will be too general to be considered a correct answer. Simply put, performing different activities results in different types of fitness. 4.What is the difference between infectious and chronic diseases? Which are more prevalent today? Infectious diseases are environmentally transmitted, while chronic diseases are developed through time by poor lifestyle choices. The more prevalent disease today are chronic diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer’s disease. 5.Describe the components of physical fitness. There are 2 key components of physical fitness. The first is the health- related components and the second is the performance related components. The health related components include cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, muscle strength, body composition, and flexibility. The performance-related components include power, speed and quickness, agility, balance, and motor skill. 6.What are the basic differences between health-related and performance- related components of physical fitness. Health related components refer to physical fitness components that will benefit the health of the individual. Working on these components will prevent health problems and conditions. Performance-related components of physical fitness focus on the performance of the exercise used to work the health related components of physical fitness. 7.I argued that separation of components into health-related and performance- related may not be an ideal model. Give one of my arguments on this topic. These performance-related components can also be very beneficial to your health, and to categorize them into two different categories may be misleading to the general public. When lists are separated into categories, a hierarchy is often put on one or the other, and in this case, it is put on health-related components. This will lead the public to think that performance is only important for sports fanatics. However, certain performance-related components, such as balance, can also be crucial to a person’s health. 8.List any 7 of the 10 general physical skills. Respiratory/ Cardiovascular endurance Strength Power Stamina (Muscular endurance) Flexibility Balance Accuracy Agility Speed Coordination 9.Physical activity can reduce the risk of an individual developing many diseases. Name three such diseases. Ischaemic heart disease Trachea, Bronchus, lung cancers Stroke Alzheimer’s disease Breast cancer Diabetes mellitus 10. A friend asks you, ―how much exercise is ideal?‖ Provide a brief response to this question. Try to quote some physiological evidence in your answer. Ideally, try to exercise 3-5 days a week. You don’t have to set aside an hour to exercise, even 2 ten minute workout sessions in a day would be very beneficial to your body. If you can’t find the time for that, studies show that you will receive health benefits from exercising even if you only do 500 calories of exercise a week. 11. Explain the ―open window‖ theory. There are natural killer cells in your body. As you exercise, these natural killer cells activate. When you rest, these cells need to return to their natural state. When you do moderate exercise, the cells can return to their natural state without an issue, however, if you do severe exercise, these cells will be suppressed for much longer. The time in which these cells are suppressed to when they recover, is called the open window. 12. Compare advantages and disadvantages of experimental versus epidemiological studies for investigating the relationship between physical activity and health. The advantages of experimental studies for investigating the relationship between physical activity and health is that it is will yield reliable results because experimental studies control all factors; therefore there is no room for ―interpretation‖. However, doing experimental studies in this field is unethical because it requires forcing all subjects to sleep at the same time, eat at the same time, and have all other factors controlled. This is simply impossible. Epidemiological studies are less reliable because it is easy to confuse correlation and causation. That is, just because a person with an active lifestyle is healthier than a person with a sedentary life style, doesn’t mean exercise causes healthier life styles. Other correlating variables, such as diet, may be a factor as well. Epidemiological studies do have many advantages though. These types of studies are legal, ethical, and easy to conduct. 13. What criteria should you apply to evaluate whether an epidemiological study is valid? The association between health and exercise must be repeatable. The association between health and exercise must be strong The association between health and exercise must be logical Other obvious variables must be shown not to be the case of association 14. ―Correlation is not causation‖. Explain the meaning of this statement with respect to research into human fitness and wellness. Just because two variables appear to be correlated, it doesn’t mean that one variable affects the other. For example, if a physically active group is healthier than a sedentary group, it may be due to other variables such as diet or smoking habits. 15. Discuss the process you would adopt to change a personal behavior. Select one target behavior change. Make a weekly, monthly, etc schedule that will slowly help me achieve that goal. Commit to the schedule 16. Describe the important steps in developing a fitness plan. ?? (not sure how to answer this) Select one target behavior change. Set a measurable goal. Create a weekly plan to reach that goal. Test if the goal is suitable to your lifestyle. If not, change the goal, to make it more suitable. When the goal is accomplished, set a new goal. 17. What does SMART goal setting mean? Specific—Is the goal specific? Do you know what, how, where, when, with whom, and how long you will do this? Measurable—Is it measurable? Will you know when it is done? See preceding discussion. Acceptable—Will you feel good about doing this? Is this a personal goal for you or is someone else influencing your choices? Realistic—Are you able to do this? Genetic characteristics, personal preferences, time, money, and so on all play a role. It can be difficult to set realistic goals at times, but if you give your goals careful consideration, you should be okay. Timely—Is there a deadline attached? Set short- and long-term goals, and create new goals once old ones are achieved. We often do not re-evaluate our goals once we have achieved them. Chapter 2 18. Distinguish between physical activity and exercise. Physical activity includes any contraction of the muscle while exercise is a purposeful and planned form of physical activity, but we perform it with the sole intention of acquiring health benefits. 19. Describe the four principles of physiologic conditioning. Overload Principal – It is important that the exercise is hard enough that it disrupts homeostasis. Specificity Principal – exercising a certain body part, component of the body, or particular skill primarily develops that part or Reversability Principal – if you stop training, you’ll lose all that you worked for. Individual differences Principal – everyone is unique, different people respond differently to certain exercise programs. 20. In terms of aerobic training effects, what is the most important factor— training intensity, duration, or frequency? Explain. Intensity is the most important factor. Research has shown that there is a threshold of exercise intensity below which an optimal cardiovascular effect will not occur. There is no threshold for duration and frequency. 21. Using the FITTness formula, describe the components of an aerobic weight- bearing (such as running) program for a 28-year-old female. Show your calculations regarding exercise intensity. Be specific. Maximal heart rate 220 – 28 = 192 192 X 0.6 = 115.2 192 X 0.9 = 172.8 Target heart rate range 115.2 – 172.8 ten second heart rate range (115.2 / 5) – (172.8 / 5) = 23 – 35 bp10s The female should exercise 3-5 times a week for at least 15 minutes, and aim for 23 -35 beats per 10 seconds intensity rate. 22. Using the FITTness formula, describe the components of an aerobic swimming program for a 45-year-old male. Show your calculations regarding exercise intensity. Be specific. Swimming is in a lower temperature and you’re lying down so you don’t have to pump blood against gravity up to your head: instead of using 220 – age to calculate maximal heart rate, use 205 – age. Maximal heart rate 205 – 45 = 160 160 X 0.6 = 96 160 X 0.9 = 144 Target heart rate range 96 – 144 Ten second heart rate range 19.2 – 28.8 The man should exercise 3-5 times a week for at least 15 minutes, and aim for an intensity rate of 19.2 – 28.8 beats per 10 seconds. 23. Explain the difference between the maximal heart rate and the heart rate reserve methods for determining exercise intensity. The maximal heart rate method is age determined meaning that it may nor be as accurate as the heart rate reserve method which takes your age and your resting heart rate into account; therefore, not making your lower range too low. 24. Define the Karvonen formula. Maximal heart rate – resting heart rate. This formula calculates the heart rate reserve. 25. What does RPE mean? Rate of perceived exertion is a scale for estimating the intensity of your exercise: 6 being nothing at all, and 20 being maximal exertion. This is also called the Borg scale. 26. Describe how to use the talk test. After exercising, If you can’t carry out a conversation because you’re out of breath, your exercise intensity is too high for sustained aerobic effect. If you can sing, your intensity is too low. 27. Is it proper to apply an exercise prescription based on heart rate for running and cycling to swimming? Explain. No, because when you are swimming, you are lying down which means blood doesn’t have to go against gravity to get to your head. Also, swimming allows you to exercise in water, which conducts heat 25 times greater than air. When exercising, your muscles generate heat, and your heart pumps blood to your skin to dissipate that heat. If you’re in water, the heart doesn’t have to work so hard to dissipate that heat. 28. List three common training errors. Not warming up properly, Having unrealistic expectations, Not planning effectively 29. List three symptoms of overtraining. Chronic weight loss, over fatigue, insomnia 30. Describe some common components of a warm-up program and a good cool-down program A warm up exercise should get you warm enough to break a sweat. There are passive warm ups and active warm ups. Passive warm ups include taking a hot shower, or a massage. Active warm ups include stretching, and walking. Active warm ups are usually a better warm up than passive ones. A cool down exercise should slowly get your heart rate down to 100 beats per minute. A 5 minute slow jog or walk followed by stretching is usually a good cool down exercise. 31. Describe physiological and psychological benefits of a warm-up prior to exercise session. Increases body temperature, which helps enzymes reach skeletal muscles, and increases blood flow and oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle. Prevents high muscle acidity early in the exercise session. Increases the deep muscle temperature, which decreases the work of contraction and reduces the chances of injury. Improves neural transmission for motor unit recruitment, resulting in an improvement in contraction and reflex times of skeletal muscles. Lessens the danger of inadequate blood flow to the heart (myocardial ischemia) in the early stages of exercise. Abrupt, strenuous exercise may be associated with such problems. Provides a screening mechanism for potential musculoskeletal or metabolic problems that may be problematic at higher exercise intensities. Lubricates joints. Provides psychological preparation for the event (such as by increasing arousal and focus). 32. Describe the physiological and psychological benefits of a cool-down after an exercise period.  Maintains the venous return to the heart and brain. Prevents light heartedness and fainting by preventing venous pooling and drop in blood pressure.  Maintains a large blood supply to the muscle, which will help reduce acidity levels.  Speeds up the removal of lactate from the working muscles. The lactate is then used during the recovery period.  Reduces the immediate post-exercise tendency for muscles to spasm or cramp.  Allows heart rate, oxygen uptake, and body temperature to gradually return to resting levels.  Reduces concentrations of exercise hormones. These hormones can cause post-exercise disturbances in cardiac rhythm. Chapter 3 33. What does the term ―proximal‖ mean (anatomical context)? Proximal is the closest part nearest to the head. 34. What is the name of the bone on the little finger side of the forearm? Radius 35. Which name is given to the lowest segment of the vertebral column? Coccyx 36. What is the anatomical name for the heel bone? Calcaneus 37. Give the proper anatomical names of the three bones that come together in the region of the shoulder joint. Clavical, Scapula, and Humerus 38. What is movement of a limb away from the midline of the body called? Abduction 39. What shoulder joint action is occurring during the up-phase of a bench press? (unsure) Transverse extension 40. What hip joint action is occurring during the down-phase of an air squat? Flexion 41. Give the proper anatomical name of a muscle whose principal action is flexion at the shoulder joint. Pectoralis major 42. Which muscle causes extension at the elbow joint when it contracts? Triceps 43. Give the proper anatomical name of a muscle whose principal action is extension at the hip joint. Gluteus Maximus (ass muscles) 44. Give the proper anatomical name of a muscle whose principal action is extension at the shoulder joint. Latissimus Dorsi 45. Give the proper anatomical name of the muscle that lifts the toes up towards the patella (ankle dorsiflexion). Tibialis anterior 46. Give the proper anatomical name of two prime mover muscles that are used in the shoulder (military or overhead) press weight training exercise. Deltoids, Anterior Triceps Bronchii 47. What does the term 10-RM (ten-repetition maximum) mean in terms of weight training? th 10 RM means that you would be unable to complete the exercise an 11 time without resting. 48. For each of the following weight training exercises, describe how to perform the exercise, list 2 or 3 prime-mover (target) muscles that are stressed and any key safety precautions: 49. Push-up. Lie face down on the floor, hands slightly wider than shoulder width apart (Shoulder Transverse extension, Elbow flexion, wrist flexion). Extend your arms (elbow extension, shoulder horizontal flexion) to raise your straight body off the floor. Keeping the body straight, bend your arms to lower your body to the floor (elbow flexion). Repeat. Partner can place and steady plate on the back if needed. Target muscle: Pectoralis major, deltoid, and triceps Be sure to keep your upper and lower body straight. 50. Curl-up. Lie spine on a bench, knees and hips bent (knee flexion, Hip flexion, Ankle Plantar Flexion), head hanging off. Flex waist to raise upper torso (spine flexion). Return until back of shoulders contacts the bench (spine extension). Repeat. Target muscle: Rectus abdominus, Obliques 51. Biceps curl. Grasp bar with both hands shoulder width apart (Forearm Supination). With elbows by your side, raise bar until forearms are vertical (Elbow flexion). Lower until arms are fully extended (Elbow extension). Target muscle: Biceps Bronchii, Brachialis Keep your back straight but do not overarch the back. Also, don’t put too much weight on your barbell. 52. Deadlift. With feet flat beneath the bar, squat down (Knee flexion) and grasp bar shoulder width apart (Forearm Pronation). Lift bar by extending Hips and knees to full extension (hip and knee extension). Pull shoulders back at top of lift (adduction?). Repeat Target muscle: Erector Spindae, Gluteus Maximus, Quadriceps Keep hips low, shoulders high, arms and BACK STRAIGHT. Knees points the same direction as feet. Keep bar close to body.Using grip work or wrist straps can be used to enhance grip. 53. Leg extension. Sit on apparatus, back against padded back support. Place front of lower legs under padded lever. Position knee at same axis as lever fulcrum. Grasp handle for support. Move lever upward by extending knees until legs are straight (knee extension). Bend knees to return lever to original position (Knee flexion). Repeat. Target muscle: Quadriceps. 54. Leg curl. Lie on bench face down with knees just beyond edge of bench. Grasp handles. Raise lower pad to back of thighs by flexing knees (knee flexion). Lower lever pads until knees are straight (Knee extension). Target Muscle: Hamstrings, Gastrocnemius Keep torso on bench to reduce hyperextension of lower back. Ankle dorsiflexion will assist in knee flexion. 55. Leg press. Sit on machine. Place feet on platform (Ankle dorsiflexion). Grasp handles. Push platform away by extending knees (knee extension). Bring platform closer by flexing knees (Knee flexion). Target muscle: Quadriceps, Gluteus Maximus 56. Lat pull-down. Grasp cable bar with wide grip (forearm pronation). Sit with thighs under support. Pull down cable bar to upper chest (Shoulder adduction). Return until arms and shoulders are fully extended (Shoulder extension). Target muscle: Latissimus Dorsi, Deltoid, Biceps Brachii Be sure your grip is not too wide or it will compromise your range of motion. 57. Bench press. Lie supine on bench. Lift barbell over upper chest using overhand grip (forearm pronation). Lower weight to mid-chest (Shoulder transverse extension, Elbow flexion). Press bar upward until arms are extended (Shoulder horizontal flexion, Elbow extension). Repeat. Target Muscle: Pectoralis Major, Deltoid, Triceps Brachii Range of motion will be compromised if grip is too wide. 58. Overhead press. Grasp barbell from rack, overhand grip, slightly wider than shoulder width. Bar in front of neck. Press bar up until arms extend overhead. Lower. Repeat. Target muscle: Deltoid, Triceps, Pectoralis Major 59. Back extension. Position thighs under pad. Lower body by bending waist. Raise or extend waist until torso is parallel to legs. Repeat Target muscle: Erector Spinae, Gluteus Maximus, Hamstrings 60. Back squat. First you will need to position barbell high on back of shoulders (elbow flexion, forearm pronation, wrist extension) and then squat with your hips bending back while knees bend forward (hip flexion, knee flexion) until thighs are just past parallel to the floor. Stand back up again (knee extension, ankle plantar flexion) and repeat. Target muscle: Gluteus Maximus, Quadriceps Remember to keep back straight and knees and feet pointed in same direction. Distribute weight evenly through forefoot and heel. 61. Pull-up. Step up and grasp the bar with and overhand wide grip (shoulder flexion and forearm pronation). Pull body up until chin is above bar (shoulder adduction). Lower body until arms and shoulders are straight and repeat (shoulder extension). Target muscles: latissimus dorsi, biceps brachii, deltoids. When performing this exercise, make sure your grip is not too wide as the range of motion will be compromised. Do not swing or bounce on bar. 62. Explain three safety rules that you should follow while weightlifting. Avoid holding your breath. Break out during exertion. Breath holding causes rise in artery blood pressure. Breath holding will cause dizziness and fainting because lack of blood to heart. Cause a valsalva maneuver (forced exhalation against a closed glottis) Use a spotter for free weight exercises so you don’t drop the bar on yourself. Check the area and make sure it’s safe to proceed w. exercise. Chapter 4 63. List five benefits of resistance training. 1. Increase Muscular strength 2. Increase Muscular endurance 3. Increase Strength of bones 4. Increase Muscle Mass 5. Decrease Body Fat 64. List some benefits and some disadvantages of resistance training. Increased risk of Muscle and tendon, bone and ligament,and low back injuries. Excessive fatigue due to over training More susceptible to temptation of steroids Benefits: Increase in flexibility, equalization of muscle development, muscle enzyme levels. Decrease in stress and tension, body fat, resting heart rate. Helps to improve appearance, increase feeling of well being, increase confidence. 65. Define muscular power. Ability to produce force QUICKLY. Force X speed of contraction = power. Or force X distance = power. 66. Distinguish between muscular strength and muscular endurance. Muscular strength is greatest amount of force, muscular endurance is ability to perform for an extended period of time. 67. Distinguish between isokinetic, isotonic, and isometric contractions. Isokinetic: muscle shortens or lengthens at a constant velocity Isotonic: tension is constant (leg curls, pushups, etc) Isometric: no change in length of muscle (stretches, planks) 68. Define the terms agonist and antagonist. Agonist: muscle that causes the motion Antagonist: muscle that can move the joint opposite to the movement of agonist. (Triceps during bicep curls) 69. What is a bi-articulate muscle? Muscle that crosses two joints 70. What are the characteristics of FOG fibres? FOG fibres = Type IIa fibres. FOG fibres are large, fast contraction, relaxation and nerve conduction velocity speed. They hav
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