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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 143
Tony Leyland

SPRING 2013 KIN 143 Assignment 1 Submitted by: Karan Thukral 301174522 C200 K a r a n T h u k r a l , 3 0 1 1 7 4 5 2 2 1. Briefly describe the four principles of physiologic conditioning. [4] [One-half mark for listing the principle and one-half mark for a short description] The term physiologic conditioning refers to a planned program of exercise directed toward improving the functional capacity of a particular bodily system. The four principles of physiologic conditioning are – Overload principle - Every tissue in the body adapts to different kinds of stress. If for example we want a muscle to just get stronger and not bigger, we must create overload in the target system. When we stress the body in a manner it’s not used to, the body will react by causing physiological changes to be able to handle that stress in a better way the next time it occurs. Specificity principle - Specific exercise elicits specific adaptations that create specific training effects. The principle of Specificity also implies that to become better at a particular exercise or skill, you must perform that exercise or skill. For example - To be a good cyclist, one must cycle. A runner should train by running and a swimmer should train by swimming. Reversibility principle - A regular program of activity must be maintained to prevent de-conditioning and loss of functional capacity. If the rest period is longer than necessary athletes miss an opportunity to overload their system and force even more adaptation. Individual differences principle-an exercise plan must be adjusted to your body’s response to exercise. It is possible to work within a similar exercise program template but we can’t all do the same thing and expect the same result. 2.Compare the advantages and disadvantages of experimental studies versus epidemiological studies for investigating the relationship between physical activity and health. [4] ADVANTAGES: 1. ACCURATE RESULTS: In an experimental study, all variables are kept constant within the groups except the variable of interest. This is to make sure that we get accurate results. While in the epidemiological studies they may look at groups of exercisers compared with non-exercisers, or groups with physically active occupations versus those with sedentary occupations and try to find correlations. 2. ITS NOT RANDOM: In an experimental study, you would have two groups with identical lifestyles except for their exercise. They would have to sleep the same amount, eat the same food, smoke and drink the same, and so on. Where as in epidemiological study groups are being compared to each other based on their fitness level. DISADVANTAGES: 1. UNETHICAL AND COSTLY- It would be unethical to keep one group of people to exercise regularly for decades and force another group to remain sedentary. It would also be very costly to monitor their activities and note the results. 2. SMALL SAMPLE DATA: Since there are too much complications in experimental studies. The sample data would be small in number as compared to epidemiological studies. As bigger sample would lead to better results. 3.In terms of aerobic training effects, what is the most important factor— training intensity, duration, or frequency? Obviously, all three factors are important, so briefly explain your choice. [3] Training intensity is considered to be the most important factor in determining the training effect. This is because we can show that, at very low intensities (for example, <50% max HR), there is little to no training effect. On the other hand,
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