Kin 241 Lab Study Notes

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Biomedical Physio & Kines
BPK 241
Donald Hedges

Kin 241 Lab Notes The Knee Ankle Inversion Sprain Mechanism - Roll over on lateral aspect of ankle (PF/INV) is most common Fracture tests a. Fracture tests: primarily a check for fibular fractures a. Always check for fracture first before doing any other test b. Squeeze test compress tibia on fibula c. Tap test tap the length of the tibia and/or at the base and head of fibula b. AROM a. DF/PF in WB and NWB b. INV/EV in NWB c. Muscle tests a. DF (tibialis anterior) b. PF in WB on single leg if possible (gastroc & soleus) c. Inversion (tibialis posterior) d. Eversion (peroneal muscles) d. Ligament stress tests a. ATFL slight plantar flexion and inversion b. CF neutral and inversion c. AITFL WB DF (SL stance) or passively forced DF d. Anterior drawer test tests general anterior ankle stability; slight PF then pull up through hell while athlete is in long sit position e. Posterior drawer test test general posterior ankle stability/PTFL; slight PF then push down along the line of the foot through midfoot/talus Ankle Eversion Sprain Mechanism - Mechanism usually PF/EV - Coming down on other players foot; catch foot in pothole and turn Kin 241 Lab Notes The Foot Plantar Fasciitis Mechanism - Gradual onset of progressive heel pain - May be due to lack of shock absorption in foot - May also occur due to fallen medial longitudinal arch Signs & Symptoms - Pain in hell - Tend to walk on lateral border of foot - TOP on med calc tubercle Functional tests Observation - Arches in standing (pes cavus or pes planus) - Differences AROM/PROM in WB - 1/3 squat double and single leg - Twist test differences between pronation/supination Length - Check for G(straight)/soleus(bent)/FHL(big toe) tightness in NWB position Strength - Possible weakness into inversion (tibialis posterior) o Point toe, toe up will use tibialis anterior - Possible weakness of big toe flexor (FHL) o Scrunch toes Palpation - Pain over the medial calcaneal tubercle - Pain may extend over the entire length of the platar fascia Kin 241 Lab Notes Fat Pad Syndrome Mechanism - Irritation of fat tissue/pad in the rearfoot - May develop acutely after a fall onto the hell from a height Functional tests - Tender on palpation over the central hell region and possibly the sides of the hind foot posterior to the medial calcaneal tubercle Heel Spurs Mechanism - Excess bone growth usually emanating from the medial calcaneal tubercle Functional tests - None, other than sending the athlete/patient for an X-ray, when conservative treatment fails - One should assume that the athlete pas plant fasciitis unless conservative means have been exhausted and xray confirm a spur in the area of discomfort Kin 241 Lab Notes Posterior Lower Leg Achilles Tendon Rupture Mechanism - A complete tear of the Achilles tendon - Pre-existing microtrauma or microtears can be found within the tendon Signs & Symptoms - A visible defect in tendon or lump in back of leg where tendon has rolled up - Inability to single leg raise - Swelling and bruising around the malleoli - Excessive passive DF Functional tests Thompson test - Athlete lies prone, squeeze calf, should produce PF of foot - Lack of PF with squeeze, indicates a positive test ROM - All AROM & PROM tests needs to be performed (DF/PF/INV/EV) Strength - Should test strength of DF, PF, EV & INV (all muscles will be strong except for PF) Palpation - Look for lump from rolled up tendon or deficit distally in the tendon
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