Unit 1-- Study Questions:
1. Health is an absence of disease; a complete state of mental, physical and social well-
being [physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, social, and environmental]
-Fitness is the ability to perform occupational and recreational activities safely
2. Health-Related Fitness: body composition, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength
and endurance, and flexibility
Performance-Related Fitness: anaerobic power/capacity, muscular power, agility,
quickness, balance, reaction time, and coordination
3. Exercise is a planned, structured, repetitive program of physical activity intended to
develop or maintain one or more elements of fitness; activity is any voluntary movement
that results in energy expenditure
4. Dose-response curve: the amount of benefit for any given increase in activity is
greatest for less active persons, resources will be used most efficiently when programs
target those who are currently not very active.
5. Protocol is a specific way of doing something; a standardized procedure. One should
follow a protocol that is reliable and objective and helps to improve test safety.
6. CSTF (Canadian Standardized Test of Fitness) provides fitness appraisers with a
simple, safe, and practical field procedure to evaluate the major components of fitness
in apparently healthy individuals in order to motivate them to enhance their participation
in physical activity.
7. Norm referencing from the CSTF and the CPALFA means that peoples scores are
compared relative to their peers; someone whos rated excellent would have a scored
high relative to their peers. Criterion referencing is an alternative method which has the
scores compared to some criterion to determine how good it is.
8. Using the word appraisal instead of test makes it less intimidating to people; the
word test may being about anxiety or over-competitiveness.
9. The advantages of thinking in terms of active living instead of fitness reaches a
wider audience. Voluntary movements that require energy can be anything that occurs
in your daily life. The term fitness may make clients think it is too hard, picture sweat
and pain, which would be a major roadblock.
Handbook for Canadas Physical Activity Guide for Healthy Living 1. The guide recommends that the duration of an activity is dependent on the effort (60
minutes of a light effort compared to 20-30 minutes of a vigorous one)
Endurance: gardening, walking, wheeling, dancing
Flexibility: Mopping the floor, stretching exercises, yoga
Strength: heavy yard work, carrying a backpack, climbing stairs
3. Starting an activity program: build physical activities into your daily routine such as
walking whenever you can, stairs instead of elevators, reducing inactivity periods, etc.
4. Rainbow for physical activity: increasing endurance activities > increasing flexibility
activities > increasing strength activities > and reducing inactivities
-endurance activities are outside the rainbow because they are the easiest to
incorporate into your daily routine and should be worked on the most Unit 2-- Study Questions:
1. People become active to 1) gain health benefits [weight control, reduced anxiety,
better sleep, lower rates of cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes], 2) improve self-
image [get in better shape, reward self with physical results], and 3) enjoyment/pleasure
[feeling better, having fun, and gaining a sense of achievement or success]
2. The classical conditioning theory of behavior explain that positive reinforcements
(rewards) will increase the probability of a particular behavior occurring in the future,
while negative reinforcements (punishments) will decrease its likelihood.
3. Ensuring positive activity experiences is a way fitness professionals can increase
adherence to activity.
4. The time between the honeymoon phase and the regular habit stage is the time
when it is most importance to maintain adherence. The time when the novelty of the
changed behavior wears off and attention to the client from friends and family
5. A neutral attitude of a clients spouse towards her activity programs have a negative
effect on her motivation; ignoring specific behavior changes is an effective way of
extinguishing that behavior.
6. Motivation is not a trait of the clients but the results of the interaction between the
client and the counselor. People in nature are ambivalent, view tasks with a cost/reward
outlook, and motivating the client is about tipping the balance of good things about
-Express empathy: accept the client as another as another valuable human being
with hopes, feats, joys and sorrow that are not your own but are just as valid; show
-Develop discrepancy: cognitive dissonance: an internal conflict between a
persons behavior and that persons beliefs or values. Inconsistency within the individual
requires a chance to decrease the discrepancy; the client should be the one presenting
arguments for chance.
-Avoid argumentation or confrontation: arguments=counterproductive. Defending
breeds defensiveness and decreases the probability that the client will change in the
right direction. Resistance is a signal to change strategies.
-Roll with resistance: resistance dictates a change in strategy, momentum can be
used to good advantage. Positions can be reframed and new perspectives can be
invited but no imposed.