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Midterm

BISC 101 Midterm: BISC 101 Review for midterm 1 SFU

18 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BISC 101
Professor
Tony Williams

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BISC101: Midterm 1
Prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes
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Nuclear Envelope:
continuous with the endomembrane system
perforated by a large number of nuclear pores between nucleus and cytoplasm
o Each surrounded by protein nuclear pore complexes
o Regulate entry and exit of stuff, e.g. mRNA moves OUT; building blocks of DNA,
rRNA, and enzymes that work inside the nucleus IN
Cytosol vs. Cytoplasm:
Cytosol = cell (nucleus + organelles)
Cytoplasm = cell nucleus
Translation:
The Cytoskeleton:
a network of fibers that organizes the structure and activity of cell
Microtubules provide tracks for “motor proteins” (e.g. kinesin) to carry cargo (transport
vesicles) around.
o Centrosome: microtubule organizing centre
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Cell motility:
organization of microtubules in a eukaryotic cell with kinesin and dynein motor proteins
provides tracks for motor proteins to carry cargo around the cell
Cilia and flagella:
Utilize microtubules and a motor protein like dynein to move the cell
Most have a 9 +2 arrangement of microtubules
o 9 double microtubules + 2 single microtubules, covered by an extension of the
plasma membrane
o whole structure = axoneme, attached to cell by basal body(a cylindrical
organelle, within the cytoplasm of flagellated and ciliated cells, that
contains microtubules and forms the base of a flagellum or cilium:
identical in internal structure to a centriole.
Movement of Flagella and Cilia:
Doublet microtubules are connected by dynein (motor protein)
Beating (movement) requires ATP = energy-demanding process
ATP changes the shape of dynein allowing it to “walk” up the microtubule
o This causes the adjacent microtubules to slide past each other
o BUT the microtubules are anchored by the basal body and connected by spokes
o So sliding causes bending = beating
Connections between cells:
Desmosomes: a structure by which two adjacent cells are attached, formed from
protein plaques in the cell membranes linked by filaments (muscle cells)
Gap junctions: Provide cytoplasmic channels from one cell to another
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