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Final

BISC 102 Final: Study Notes - Lectures 20, 21
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BISC 102
Professor
Erin Barley

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Lec 20: Population Ecology
- Population: group of individuals of 1 species living in a given area
- Use common resources, cope with similar environmental factors, interact with each other
1. Population characteristics?
- Dispersion: pattern of spacing b/w individuals
- Density: # of individuals per unit area
- Age structure: # of individuals of different ages
- Sex ratio: ratio of males to females
- Range: geographic area a population resides in
- Population size: # of individuals
2. Dispersion patterns?
- Clumped: individuals in patches (ex. Shared resource, social interaction, predator avoidance)
- Uniform/regular: individuals evenly spaced (territoriality, competition for scarce resource)
- Random: unpredictable spacing of individuals (biotic, abiotic conditions are homogenous)
3. Quadrat sampling (sessile or slow moving)?
- N = qAp/Aq
4. Mark recapture (mobile animas)?
- N = m1n2/m2
5. Survivorship curves? Types and x-axis, y-axis.
- Y-axis: number of survivors (Nx), X-axis: age (years)
- Or y-axis: number of survivors (log scale), X-axis: % of max life span.
- Type 1: mortality increases w/ age (humans)
- 2: Constant over time (squirrels)
- 3: mortality decreases w/ age (oysters)
6. Strategy A vs B?
A:
- Breed young
- Breed often
- Many small babies
- Small body size
- Die young
- Little parental care
B:
- Breed late
- Breed rarely
- Few large babies
- Large body size
- Die old
- Long parental care
7. Principle of allocation: individuals divide a finite amount of resources among multiple needs:
- Today: growth, maintenance, reproduction
- Whole life: present, future
8. Rate of change in pop. size:
- r = rate of increase per capita
- When b is high, d is very low, r is at rmax (intrinsic rate of growth)
- Exponential growth: dN/dt = rmax*N (ie. unlimited resources)
- Logistic growth: dN/dt = rmaxN*(K-N)/K [(K-N)/K = proportion of carrying capacity still available for growth]

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Description
Lec 20: Population Ecology - Population: group of individuals of 1 species living in a given area - Use common resources, cope with similar environmental factors, interact with each other 1. Population characteristics? - Dispersion: pattern of spacing b/w individuals - Density: # of individuals per unit area - Age structure: # of individuals of different ages - Sex ratio: ratio of males to females - Range: geographic area a population resides in - Population size: # of individuals 2. Dispersion patterns? - Clumped: individuals in patches (ex. Shared resource, social interaction, predator avoidance) - Uniform/regular: individuals evenly spaced (territoriality, competition for scarce resource) - Random: unpredictable spacing of individuals (biotic, abiotic conditions are homogenous) 3. Quadrat sampling (sessile or slow moving)? - N = qAp/Aq 4. Mark recapture (mobile animas)? - N = m1n2/m2 5. Survivorship curves? Types and x-axis, y-axis. - Y-axis: number of survivors (Nx), X-axis: age (years) - Or y-axis: number of survivors (log scale), X-axis: % of max life span. - Type 1: mortality increases w/ age (humans) - 2: Constant over time (squirrels) - 3: mortality decreases w/ age (oysters) 6. Strategy A vs B? A: - Breed young - Breed often - Many small babies - Small body size - Die young - Little parental care B: - Breed late - Breed rarely - Few large babies - Large body size - Die old - Long parental care 7. Principle of allocation: individuals divide a finite amount of resources among multiple needs: - Today: growth, maintenance, reproduction - Whole life: present, future 8. Rate of change in pop. size: - r = rate of increase per capita - When b is high, d is very low, r is at rmax (intrinsic rate of growth) - Exponential growth: dN/dt = rmax*N (ie. unlimited resources) - Logistic growth: dN/dt = rmaxN*(K-N)/K [(K-N)/K = proportion of carrying capacity still available for growth]
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