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BUS 237 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Computer Hardware, Local Area Network, Application Software

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 237
Kamal Masri
Study Guide

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Midterm Study Notes (Ch. 1-6) BUS 237
Summer 2008
Steven Toy
Chapter 1: Information Systems and You
Information system (IS): a group of components that interact
to produce information
The Five Components of an Information System
Hardware Software Data Procedures People
More difficult to change
Management information systems (MIS): the development
and use of information systems that help businesses achieve
their goals and objectives
Information technology (IT): the methods, inventions,
standards and products; raw technology that concerns only
hardware, software and data components of IS model
IT, by itself, does not help an organization achieve its goals
and objectives; it must be embedded into an IS to become
Moore’s Law: the number of transistors per square inch on an
integrated chip doubles every 18 months
Essentially, this means the speed of computer chips double
every 18 months
As a result, the price/performance ratio of computers (and
other IT products) has dramatically declined over the years

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Midterm Study Notes (Ch. 1-6) BUS 237
Summer 2008
Steven Toy
Chapter 2: Business Processes, Information,
and Decision Making
Business process: a network of activities, resources, facilities,
and information that interact to achieve some business function
(e.g., inventory management, manufacturing, sales and support,
etc. – See Figure 2-1, p. 25)
Components of a Business Process
1. Activities: transform resources and information of one type into
resources and information of another type (e.g., quantity
received and shipping invoice information into a payment)
Can be manual, automated or both
2. Resources: Items of value
Includes suppliers and customers
3. Facilities: structures used within a business process (e.g.,
inventories, databases, equipment, etc.)
4. Information
data: recorded facts or figures
Definitions of information:
Knowledge derived from data (e.g., individual wages in a
department– data average wage in the department –
Data presented in a meaningful context (e.g. employee’s
wage – data employee makes half the average wage in
the department – information)
Processed data (e.g. data that has been summed, ordered,
averaged, grouped, compared, etc.)
A difference that makes a difference
Characteristics of Good Information
To context
To subject
Just barely sufficient: We only want enough information to make
decisions and no more

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Midterm Study Notes (Ch. 1-6) BUS 237
Summer 2008
Steven Toy
Worth its cost: Benefits > Costs
Automated system: an activity in a business process where the
work formerly done by people following procedures is now done
by computers following instructions in software
Hardware Software Data Procedures People
--------------------------------------------------Work moves from human side to
computer side
A mostly automated system
Hardware Software Data Procedures People
A mostly manual system
Hardware Software Data Procedures People
Decision Levels
Operational: concern day-to-day activities (e.g., ordering
inventory, extending credit, paying accounts payable, etc.)
Supported by transaction processing systems (TPS)
Managerial: concern the allocation and utilization of resources
(e.g., departmental budgeting, employee-project assignment,
Supported by management information systems (MIS)
(NOTE: In this context, we are referring to an information
system that supports managerial-level decision making, not
the broader definition introduced in Chapter 1)
Strategic: concern broader-scope, organizational issues (e.g.
product line expansion, regional expansion, competitor
acquisition, etc.)
Supported by executive information systems (EIS)
Decision Structures
Structured decision: a decision for which there is an
understood and accepted method for making the decision (e.g.
inventory reordering in a just-in-time system)
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