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BUS 272 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Type A And Type B Personality Theory, Fundamental Attribution Error

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Christopher Zatzick
Study Guide

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Chapter 1
Organizational citizenship behavior desries disretioar ehaior that is ot part of eploee’s
formal job requirements but nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization.
E.g) helping others on team, volunteering for more work
Positive organizational scholarship studies how organizations develop human strengths, foster vitality
and resilience, and unlock potential. They study with what is good in an organization as opposed to the
usual what is wrong with it.
Building blocks of OB:
Psychology: explains changes in behavior in humans (individuals)
Social Psychology: i psholog + soiolog to fous o people’s ifluee o aother (group)
focus on change how to reduce cultural barriers.
Sociology: people in relation to environment and cultures (group + organization system) Focus
on organizational tech, communication, power and conflict.
Anthropology: study societies and human beings and their activities (organization system)
Systematic study looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effect, basing
conclusions on scientific evidence that is, on data gathered under controlled conditions and measured
and interpreted in a reasonable manner. (Carrying out a study in a methodical manner step by step)
Evidence based management (EBM) using systematic studies to make managerial decisions. Making
decisions based on latest available evidence/ sciences
OB Research Methods:
Field Studies:
o Data collected on site
o Investigations generally involves observations of groups or people
o Data collected through questions
o “ure’s usuall oduted  phoe, eail, iterie, olie
Lab Studies:
o Data collected in lab settings
o Difficult to generalize findings in everyday settings
Case Studies:
o Data collected through an in-depth investigation of an individual or a group over time
o Methods include direction, observation, interviews, and document research
o Data collected by combining and analyzing the findings of multiple studies
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o Method permits stronger conclusions about hypothesis
Contingency approach an approach taken by OB that considers the behavior in the context in which it
occurs. (People act differently at different times, so OB recognizes this.)
Chapter 2
Perception process by which an individual organizes and interpret their impressions to give meaning
to their environment.
Factors that influence perception:
The Situation
o Time
o Work setting
o Social Setting
The Perceiver
o Attitudes
o Motives
o Interests
o Experiences
o Expectations
The Target
o Novelty
o Motion
o Sounds
o Size
o Background
o Proximity
Attribution theory when we observe what seems like a typical behavior by an individual, we attempt
to determine whether is it internally or externally caused.
Internally caused believed to be under personal control of the individual (Seeing student late
to class as a result of staying up late)
Externally caused believed to result from outside causes (Seeing student late to class as a
result of an automobile accident traffic delay)
Distinctiveness behavioral rule that considers whether an individual acts similarly across a
variety of situations
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Consensus a behavioral rule that considers if everyone was faced with the same situation
would respond in a similar way.
Consistency A behavioral rule that considers whether the individual has been acting the same
way over time.
Fundamental attribution error The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and
overestimate the internal factor influence when making judgments about behavior of others. (Manager
attributes poor sales to laziness rather than introduction of competitor)
Self-Serving bias The tendency for individuals to attribute their own success as internal factors and
placing the blame for failures on external factors
Selective perception People’s seletie iterpretatio of hat the see ased o their iterests,
background, experience and attitudes.
Halo effect Drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of a single characteristic
Contrasts effects The concept that our reactions to one person is often influenced by other people we
have recently encountered
Projection Attriutig oe’s o harateristis to other people
Stereotyping Judgig soeoe o the asis of oe’s pereption of the group which the person belongs
Heuristics Judgment shortcuts in decision-making
Prejudice An unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular
stereotyped group
Self-fulfilling prophecy/Pygmalion effect A concept that proposes a person will behave in ways
consistent with how he or she is perceived by others
Personality The stable pattern of behavior and consistent internal states that determine how an
individual reacts to and interacts with others
Personal Traits edurig harateristis that desrie a idiidual’s ehaior
Myer-Briggs type indicator (MBTI) A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies
people into 1 of 16 personality types.
Extraverted/Introverted: Extraverted people are outgoing sociable and assertive. Introverted
people are quiet and shy. E/I measures where we direct our energy when dealing with people
and things.
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