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Midterm

BUS 272 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Baby Boomers, Job Satisfaction, Big Five Personality Traits


Department
Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Professor
Lieke Ten Brummelhuis
Study Guide
Midterm

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BUS 272 CHAP 1-6
BOLDED ARE IMPORTANT TO KNOW
CH1
Define Organizational Behaviour
- A field of study that looks at the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on behaviour
within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an
organizations effectiveness
Building Blocks of OB
- Psychology: explains behaviour of humans; individual behaviour, emotion, motivation
- Social Psychology: blends concepts of psychology and sociology - focus on people’s influence on
one another
- Sociology: people in relation to their social environment or culture; communication, conflict
- Anthropology: study of societies, to learn about human beings and their activities; society/culture,
values, attitudes, customs
Rigors of OB
- Systematic Studies: looking at relationship, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and
drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence
- Evidence- Based Management: basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific
evidence
Research Methods in OB
- Field Studies: real-life organizations, on-site investigations involving observations
- Laboratory Studies: Lab settings, things can be controlled
- Case-Studies: in-depth, detailed analysis of single situations, observations, interviews and
document research
- Survey Studies: questionnaires, interviews
- Meta-Analysis: collect already available information on the relationships, combining and
analyzing this information
Contingency Approach
- OB considers behaviour within the context in which it occurs.
CH2
Perception
- Process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions to give meaning to their
environment
Factors that affect Perception
- The Perceiver: your perception of what you see is heavily influenced by your personal
characteristics - attitude, motives, interests, past experiences, expectations
- The Target: relationship to its background influences perception - loud people, unattractive
people, sizes are easily noticed
- The Situation: context matters, the time in which we see an object can influence attention- time,
setting
Perceptual Errors

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- Attribution Theory: trying to make sense of atypical behaviour
- Distinctiveness: considers whether the individual acts that way across variety of situation
- yes: internal
- Consensus: considers whether everyone that is facing the similar situation responds in the
same way - consensus high: external
- Consistency: considers whether the individual acts that particular way for a while -
consistent: internal
- Self- Serving Bias: we use this to judge ourselves; if we are successful we say it is internally
caused but if we fail, we blame it on external causes
- Selective Perception: because we cannot see everything around us, we become selective to our
perception; we interpret people based on their interest, background, attitude. (i.e. you are more
likely to notice cars that look like your own)
- Halo Effect: drawing a general impression on individuals based on one single characteristic - our
general views contaminate others.
- Contrast Effects: our reaction to people is often influenced based on previous encounters
- Projection: attributing one’s own characteristics onto others - it is easy to judge others assuming
they are similar to ourselves
- Stereotyping: judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she
belongs.
- Heuristic judgement: shortcuts on decision making
- Prejudice: dislike a person or group based on preconceived and unfounded options
Personality
- Stable patterns of behaviour, determine how individuals react and interact with others
Big Five Personality Model
- Openness to Experience: range of interest with novelty
- High: creative, curious
- Low: dull minded, inflexible
- Conscientiousness: reliability
- High: Responsible
- Low: disorganized, unreliable
- Extraversion: comfort level with relationships
- High: Sociable, happy
- Low: timid, quiet
- Agreeableness: propensity to defer with others
- High: trusting, warm, cooperative
- Low: cold, disagreeable
- Emotional Stability: withstand stress
- High: calm, confident, secure
- Low: depressed, anxious, nervous
Myer-Briggs Indicator Test
- Why is it a problem?
- Forces a person into specific/ one or the other categories
Personality Attributes

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- Core Self- Evaluation: degree to which an individual likes or dislikes themselves, how capable
they view themselves, how much control and power one feels in an environment
- Positive: performs better than others, ambitious, committed, and persistent
- Self- Monitoring: degree to which one can adjust his or her behaviour externally, in situational
factors
- Positive Personality: identify opportunities, show initiative and take action, higher level of job
performance and career success.
Moods vs. Emotions
- Emotions are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something - reaction to person or
event
- Emotions can turn into moods
- Moods are feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions
- I.e. someone makes you cry, (short term, emotion) you feel sadness from event and ruins your
day, causing you to be in a bad mood
Emotional Labour
- Employees expression of emotion during transactions at work
Emotional Dissonance
- Felt Emotions: Actual emotions of an individual
- Displayed Emotions: Emotions that an organization want an employee to act; can be learnt
- Surface-Acting: Hiding one’s inner feelings to display what is expected
- Deep Acting: Trying to modify feelings to match what is expected
Emotional Intelligence
- Ability to detect and manage emotional cures and information
CH3
Values
- Core belief of what we consider preferable behaviour (instrumental) and worthwhile life goals
(terminal)
Rokeach’s Value Study
- Terminal Values: what we want in life before end. I.e. goals that individuals want to achieve
during lifetime
- Instrumental Values: Modes of behaviour and means for achieving Terminal Values.
Geert Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures
- Power Distance: degree to which people accept that power in organizations are distributed
unequally
- Individualism vs. Collectivism: Individualism is the degree to which people prefer to act as
individuals rather than in groups. Collectivism emphasizes tight social frameworks in which
people expect others in groups they are apart of to protect and look after them
- Masculinity vs. Femininity: Masculinity is the degree to which culture favors traditional
masculine roles. Femininity is the culture that sees little differentiation between male and female
roles and treats women as equals of men in all respects.
- Uncertainty Avoidance: The degree to which people in a country prefer structured over
unstructured situations defines their uncertainty avoidance. Cultures low on uncertainty
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