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BUS 272 Study Guide - Final Guide: Toothpaste, Triple Bottom Line, Corporate Social Responsibility

Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 272
Lieke Ten Brummelhuis
Study Guide

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The Communication Process:
1) Sender
2) Encoder
3) Message
4) Channel
5) Receiver
6) Decoding
7) Noise
8) Feedback
Information Richness of Communication Channels: (scale from face to face to bulk mail)
1) Handle multiple cues simultaneously - Can the other person see your non-verbal cues?
2) Facilitate rapid feedback - Can you respond right away?
3) Being Personal - Is the message directed to you personally?
Non-Verbal Communication - messages conveyed through body movements, intonations and emphasis, facial
expressions and physical distance between sender and receiver
1) Kinetic (Body Motions)
Facial expressions
Eye contact
Intonations (emphasis)
2) Proxemic (Physical Space)
Physical distance (contact vs. no contact)
Barriers of Effective Communication
1) Language
a) Words can have more than one meaning
b) Words can mean different things to different people
c) Same language can have differences across cultures, regions, professions, organizations
2) Filter
a) Sender selecting what is said
b) The sender manipulates information so that it will be seen more favourably by the receiver
3) Selective Perception
a) Receiver filtering what is received (the message you accept)
b) The receiver selectively see and hear based on their needs, motivations, experience, background and
other personal characteristic
4) Information Overload
a) Receiving more information than one can process
b) When the information we have to work with exceeds our processing capacity, we select, ignore or
forget some information until its manageable
5) Emotion
a) Positive mood: more likely to accept any message
b) Negative moods: more likely to be more suspicious, critical and pessimistic
c) Extreme emotions (excitement and sadness) hinder effective communication
6) Silence
a) Important information is being withheld
b) WHY:
i) Thinking or contemplating a response to a question
ii) Anxiety about giving the message
iii) agreement , dissent, frustration, or anger
c) Problem is that you don’t know what silence means if other person does not explain silence
7) Lying

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a) Presenting information in a deceiving manner
b) Withholding important information
c) Changing the facts
d) RESULT: you do not have access to the correct information
e) People tell lies daily, usually innocent lies
f) It gets problematic when:
i) Lies are frequent
ii) Lies result in taking the wrong actions or decision
Directions of Communication
1. Downwards
Communication that flows to a lower level (manager to employee)
2. Upward
Communication that flows to a upper level (employee to manager)
3. Lateral (Horizontal)
Communication among members of the same level (employee to employee; or manager to manager)
Communication Networks
1) Formal Networks (communication that follows the authority chain)
a) Chain - follows formal chain of command (above or below)
b) Wheel: all flows directly towards or from leader
c) All channels: everyone can communicate with everyone else
2) Informal Networks (grapevine)
a) Communication that flows along social and relational lines
i) Not controlled by management
ii) Relational related - Gossip
iii) Can be used to serve the interest of those people within it
Electronic Communication
Dealing with information overload: time spent on emailing and not spent on core tasks
Distraction during work
Being always on call (work-family conflict; no time to recover)
1) Email
a) Quick and wide reach but;
b) Misinterpretation
2) Instant Message
a) Quick but;
b) intrusive , distracting, less secure
3) Social Media
a) People connector but;
b) Distractor
c) Comments can escalate
Research on Smartphones
Are employees with smartphones able to unwind and recover from work?
Study Shows:
Smartphone users are unable to engage in recovery strategies in response to Work-Home
Non-Smartphone users actively detach from work when they experience Work-Home Interference
Communication differences across genders and cultures
1) Language - barriers caused by:
a) Semantics
i) Words in different languages carry different meaning
b) Tone difference

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i) Formal vs. informal
c) Difference in tolerance
i) Does culture avoid conflict?
ii) Is public apology expected?
2) High vs. Low Context Cultures
Is the message most important or does the context in which communication takes place influence the
meaning of the message
High Context: China, Korea, Japan, Vietnam
i) Oral agreements imply strong commitment managers; implies trust, relies on non-verbal cues -
social bonds
Low Context: USA, Europe
i) Body language and formal ties are secondary; enforces contracts; direct and explicit orders;
spoken and written words to convey meaning - high individualism
3) Tips for bridging barriers (A Cultural Guide)
Respect and listen
Summarize, verify and take notes
Don't assume that others are the same
Don’t assume others will understand you
Power, Politics, Conflict, Negotiation:
Power: the potential ability to influence behaviour, to change the course of events, to overcome resistance, and to
get people to do things they would not do otherwise
WHY: they need or fear the powerful actor’s resources
Bases of Power: (response) - definition
1. Reward (compliance) - ability to offer rewards that people value
2. Coercive (resistant) - ability to punish or give instructions ; instil fear
3. Referent (commitment) - influence from admiration ; a role model
4. Legitimate (compliance) - use of authority ; official status / position
5. Expert (commitment) - expertise and skill ; knowledge is power
6. Information - once you give away your information, you lose your power
Responses to Power:
1. Resistance: people oppose the behaviour desired by influencer
2. Compliance: motivated by external sources to implement requests
3. Commitment: identify with and highly motivated to implement request
Dependency: Key to Power
Dependence can be increased when the resource is …
1. Important
2. Scare
3. Cannot or few substitutes
Influence Tactics: (bases of power) - how
1. Legitimacy (legitimate)- they have legal or official status
2. Pressure (coercive) - using demands, threats and reminders
3. Rational Persuasion (expert) - anyone; used to present ideas
4. Inspirational Appeals (referent) - having a mission, goal, or value
5. Personal Appeals (referent) - influenced by emotions, loyalty or friendships
6. Exchange (information) - trade; offer benefit in return for support
7. Consultation - making someone feel like they have a say/power
8. Ingratiation - using flattery prior to making request
9. Coalitions - grouping people who want the same thing together ; partnership
Empowerment: the freedom and the ability of employees to make decisions and implement those decisions.
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