BUS 361 Study Guide - Systems Development Life Cycle, Project Management Institute, Project Management Office

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Published on 31 May 2011
School
Simon Fraser University
Department
Business Administration
Course
BUS 361
Professor
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT
x Project t planned undertaking of related activities to reach an objective that has a beginning
and end
x Project management institute (PMI) t brings together PM professionals and captures PM
knowledge
o Publishes PMBOK (project management body of knowledge
Collection of processes and knowledge areas of best practices
x Stakeholders have vested interests in a project
o Project sponsor t provides executive support/resources necessary for completion
o Project manager t leads and manages. Has diverse set of skills (management,
leadership, technical, conflict management, customer relationship.
Is responsible for initiating, planning, executing, controlling, monitoring, closing
x Projects undertaken to solve business problem or take advantage of business opportunity
x Feasibility: time? Financial resources? Technical resources?
x Top 5 causes of project failure:
o 1. Lack of attention to human and organizational factors
o 2. Poor PM
o 3. Poor articulation of user requirements
o 4. Inadequate attention to business needs and goals
o 5. Failure to involve users appropriately
Why IT projects are unique
x Constant change in technologies
x Finding/keeping experienced IT employees
x Extensive amount of user participation is required
x Need to understand systems development methodologies and how they can be integrated into
PM framework . methodologies may be similar to:
o Systems development life cycle t structure approach to systems development
o Rapid application development t expedited approach to systems development
x D}/d}]}v^}v}(l]v_
x Scope of project likely to change
x Technology changes may change course of project itself
What is project management
x Application of knowledge, skills, tools, techniques to project activities in order to meet project
requirements
x Involves five process groups t initiating, planning, executing, controlling, closing
o All five of these known as the project management life cycle
Common reasons for project failure
x Over budget
x Not completed on time
x Fails to deliver system that meets stakeholder expectations
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x Plan t scope, time, cost, risk management planning. Tools used:
WBS t lists all activities necessary for completion of a project
gantt charts t shows star and end dates for project activities
network diagrams t illustrates various tasks in sequence
critical path method t determines sequence of task activities that directly affect
completion of a project
program evaluation and review technique t uses optimistic, pessimistic,
realistic time to calculate expected time for particular task
CHAPTER 2 THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT LIFE CYCLE
x includes necessary steps (from beginning to end) needed to complete a project
x projects are divided into smaller parts called phases
x end of each phase referred to as stage phase exit and marks completion of deliverables
x common life cycle characteristics:
o cost and staffing resemble bell curve (low at start, higher at end, drop rapidly near
completion)
o risk/uncertainty highest at beginning
o stakeholder influence highest at beginning, lowest at end
Systems Development Life Cycle
x = common methodology for systems development that marks phases of information systems
development. Is a type of project management life cycle.
5 typical phases:
x 1. Systems Planning t v(}vÁÇu]v](]U}}Çu[}u]v
x 2. Systems analysis t system requirements determined, one alternative is chosen which best
meets cost, labour, technical levels to which organization willing to commit
x 3. Systems Design t descriptions of recommended alternative converted into logical and
physical designs
o Logical design = focuses on data flow/ process
o Physical Design = specs of programming language
x 4. Systems Implementation t systems specs turned into working system that is tested and put
into use
x 5. Systems maintenance t programmers make changes that users request, modify system to
reflect changing business conditions
Organization Structure Types
x Functional t traditional hierarchical
x Projectized t people from different functional backgrounds work with each other throughout
}i[o](]uU}}Pv]}vo}µv]X}(v}Pv]}voµv]}}
to a department
x Matrix t structure which typically crosses functional design (on one axis) and some other design
characteristic (on other axis)
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x Project management office t organizational unit created to centralize and coordinate projects
within an organisation
o Not all organizations have, and function varies among organizations
PMBOKïs Identified Influences on Projects
Standards and Regulations
x Standard t document approved by recognized body that provides rules, guidelines, processes
and compliance is NOT mandatory (ISO 1994)
x Regulation t document lays down product process, characteristics, compliance is MANDATORY
(ISO 1994)
Internationalization t dispersed team members, time zones, political differences
Cultural differences t politics, economics, ethnic origins, demographics, religion
Socio-Economic-Environmental Sustainability t o]vP}]]ÀlvP]ÀÇu[]u
accountability by organization
Key General Management Skills (Desired Traits)
x Leader, communicator, negotiator, problem solver, influencer, motivator
Project Management Tools and Techniques
Gantt Chart
x Depicts duration, beginning/end of tasks
x Depicts Overlaps of tasks
x Depicts Slack time
Network Diagram
x Depicts sequences of tasks
x *Major strength = ability to show how changes to completion times impact overall schedule,
which is why it is used more often than Gantt
x Used network diagram when tasks are well-defined, can be worked on independently of other
tasks, are ordered
Critical Path
x =longest duration path through a network diagram, which depicts shortest time in which project
can be completed
x Any activity on a critical path that is delayed will delay the entire project
o Activities not on the critical path have slack time
Slack Time
x Free slack t amount of time task can be delayed without delaying early start of subsequent tasks
x Total slack t amount of time task can be delayed without delaying completion of project
Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
x Uses optimistic, pessimistic, realistic time estimates to calculate expected time for a particular
task
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Document Summary

N project j planned undertaking of related activities to reach an objective that has a beginning and end. N project management institute (pmi) j brings together pm professionals and captures pm knowledge: publishes pmbok (project management body of knowledge. S collection of processes and knowledge areas of best practices. N stakeholders have vested interests in a project: project sponsor j provides executive support/resources necessary for completion, project manager j leads and manages. Has diverse set of skills (management, leadership, technical, conflict management, customer relationship. Is responsible for initiating, planning, executing, controlling, monitoring, closing. N projects undertaken to solve business problem or take advantage of business opportunity. N top 5 causes of project failure: 1. Lack of attention to human and organizational factors: 2. Inadequate attention to business needs and goals: 5. N extensive amount of user participation is required. N need to understand systems development methodologies and how they can be integrated into.