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Midterm

BUS 432 Midterm: Chapter 2 - Culture


Department
Business Administration
Course Code
BUS 432
Professor
Dave Thomas
Study Guide
Midterm

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Chapter 2: Culture
WHAT IS CULTURE?
Culture is a mentor program that is shared by a group of people that condition their
response to their environment
In terms of HRM culture consists of values attitudes beliefs and assumptions about
appropriate behavior has shared in a society
Culture is transmitted through the process of learning and interacting with the
environment
culture is not a random assortment of customs and beliefs but an organized
system of values attitudes and meanings that are related to each other
How do cultures vary?
It can be tight or loose
Tight Culture -
such as Japans, have broad agreemnts on cultural norms and are
often based on homogenous populations or the dominance of a particular
religious beliefs.
Loose Culture
such as Canada, have greater diverse population with a greater
degree of variability of thought and action accepted and even encouraged
How/when does culture affect HRM?
When answering this question we focus on VALUES value differences arise from
the solutions that different societies have devised over time for dealing with
fundamental problems
WHAT CULTURE IS
Values, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral assumptions
o Values, Attitudes and Beliefs these are all cognitions you can’t see
them
Shared by a social group
Learned (passed on)
Systematic and organized
National culture is a societal level construct but carried in the minds of individuals
AND WHAT IT IS NOT
Not genetic
Not about individual behavior

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Not random assortment of customs and beliefs
3 levels of mental programing
1. Human nature Universal Biological
2. Culture Specific to GROUPS Learned
3. Personality Specific to Individuals Inherited and Learned
Most of culture is hidden only the superficial visual artifacts of culture is shows like a
tip of an iceberg
WHY CULTURE DIFFERS AND PERSISTS
- Survival
- Language
- Religion
- Climate and indigenous economy
- Proximity to others and topography
- Economic systems and technology
- Political boundaries
ISSUES INVOLVING CULTURE
- National Culture
Can a nation have a culture? Ex: Canada doesn’t have a shared culture, people
in Quebec are soo different than vancoverites
- Convergence or Divergence
Are cultures becoming more similar or different ?
Technology makes culture more convergent but in reality this is a
difficult question to answer
- Acculturation
People becoming acculturated it takes 3 generations for people to start
adopting a new culture
- Biculturals
When people have two cultural identities behaving differently with people
of different cultures frame shifting
- Organizational and national culture
Organizational culture is quantitatively different from national culture

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NATIONAL VERSUS ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Different because they operate at different levels. When you leave the organization you
can leave the culture! The way you identify with the organizational culture is much
more superficial.
National Culture
Organizational culture
Shared meanings
unconditional relationship
born into it
totally immersed
Share behavior
conditional relationships
socialized into it
partly involved
COMPARING CULTURES
KLUCKHOHN AND STODTBECKS FRAMEWORK
1)
Relationship to nature
a. Domination need to control or master nature
b. Subjugation need to submit to nature
c. Harmony need to work together with nature for balance
2)
Beliefs of human nature
a. People are good, evil or mixture of two
3)
Nature of human activity
a. People should concentrate on living for the moment (BEING) striving for
goals (ACHIEVING) or reflecting (THINKING)
4)
Concept of space
a. the physical space use is private, public or mixture of public and private.
5)
Orientation to time
a. people to make decisions with respect to traditions for events in the past
events in the present or events in the future
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