Chapter 14.docx

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Simon Fraser University
Business Administration
BUS 272
Christopher Zatzick

Chapter 14: Organizational Change What causes change? Mergers, acquisitions, divestitures, global competition, management, organizational structure. Forces for change  Nature of the workforce: ex more  Competition: ex global competitors cultural diversity  Social trends: ex internet chat rooms  Technology  World politics: ex war  Economic shocks: ex rise&fall of stocks Change agents: people who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities Approaches to managing change Lewin’s three-step model:  Unfreezing: change efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity o Driving forces: forces that direct behavior away from the status quo o Restraining forces: forces that hinder movement away from the status quo  Moving: efforts to get employees involved in the change process  Refreezing stabilizing a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces Kotter’s eight-step plan for implementing change 1. Establish a sense of urgency. 5. Empower others to act. 2. Form a coalition. 6. Develop short-term “wins.” 3. Create a new vision. 7. Consolidate improvements. 4. Communicate the vision. 8. Reinforce changes Action research: a change process based on the systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the analyzed data indicate  provids a scientific method for managing planned change diagnosis, analysis, feedback, action, and evaluation Appreciative inquiry: an approach to change that seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization, which can then be built on to improve performance discoverydreamingdesigndestiny Resistance to change Cynicism  Feeling uninformed about what was happening  Lack of communication and respect from one’s m
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