BUS 272 CH. 2-6

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Business Administration
BUS 272
Kirsten Robertson

BUS 272 CHAPTERS 2-7 #3 – Organizational System - sociology Organization: - anthropology social unit composed of a group of people, - political functions to achieve a common goal or set of - science goals #2 – Group Organizational Behavior: - sociology field of study of the impact of individuals, groups, structure on - social behavior in organizations - psychology > knowledge to improve organizational effectiveness #1 – Individual - psychology TYPES OF WORK RELATED BEHAVIOR 1) Organizational Citizenship Behavior various forms of cooperation and helpfulness to others > supports organizations social or psychological context 2) Counterproductive Work Behavior voluntary behavior that my directly/indirectly harm an organization Example: abuse, threats, work avoidance, sabotage 3) Task Performance behaviors that help to transform raw materials into goods and services that support and maintain technical activities 4) Joining and Staying with the Organization > transfer of knowledge to competitors > replacement costs 5) Maintaining Work Attendance > illness, personal reasons, situational factors > job dissatisfaction, stress → work withdrawal CURRENT TRENDS IN OB: > globalization > increase workforce diversity > global recession > new employment relationships: work-life balance, virtual employees/teams PERSONALITY, VALUES AND PERCEPTION Personality relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions and behaviors > characterizes a person and their psychological processes > influenced by nature and nurture Mars Model Explains individual behavior and results 1) Motivation 3) Role Perception 2) Ability 4) Situational Factors 1) Motivation thoughts and emotional conditions that directly cause us to move > direction, intensity, persistence 2) Ability includes natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a tast > Aptitudes: natural talents > Learned Capabilities: skills and knowledge - tend to wane over time when not in use > Competencies: characteristics of a person that result in superior performance - includes some knowledge, skills, aptitudes, and behaviors *main goal is to match job competencies with the task requirements* 3) Role Perceptions the extent to which people understand the job duties (roles) assigned to/expected of them > guide employees direction of effort > improve coordination with coworkers, suppliers etc. (1) – understanding of the specific tasks assigned (2) – the priority of their various tasks and performance expectations (3) – the preferred behaviors / procedures for accomplishing the assigned tasks (to perform tasks in more than one way) 4) Situational Factors situational constraints Example: Consumers preferences are beyond employees/organization’s control * the clarity and consistency of cues provided to employees regarding their role obligations and opportunities* Five Factor Model of Personality (CANOE Model) 5 abstract dimensions representing most personality traits Extroversion individuals who get energy from the outer world > low conscientiousness: careless, disorganized, irresponsible > low agreeableness: uncooperative, short-tempered, irritable > low neuroticism: high emotional stability - poised, secure, calm > low openness to experience: - resistant to change, less open to new ideas, fixed in their ways > high openness: eager to try out new ideas > high conscientiousness: achievement oriented > conscientiousness and emotional stability (low neuroticism) best predict performance Self-Concept an individual’s self beliefs and self evaluations > “How do I feel about myself?” > people often compare themselves with current and desired competencies > how people perceive themselves - attitudes, motivation, decisions, behaviors in the workplace Self-Enhancements a person’s motivation to have a positive self-concept > individuals tend to: - rate themselves above average - believe they have better than average probability of success - attribute success to personal motivation - blame situation for their mistakes and failures Positive Consequences - experience better mental and physical health Negative Consequences - overestimate probability of success in investment Self-Verification motivation to confirm and maintain his/her existing self-concept (1) – affects perceptual process: more likely to remember information consistent with self-concept → screen out inconsistent information (2) – clear self concept: less likely to accept contradicting feedback (3) – motivates to interact with others who affirm self-concept → affects how well they get along with boss and other team members Self-Evaluation self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control > High self-esteem - connected and accepted by others - less influenced by others - think more rationally Self-Efficacy a person’s belief that he/she has the ability, motivation, correct role perceptions and favorable situation to complete a task successfully > High self-efficacy - “can do” attitude - high overall self evaluation - believe they possess the motivation, resources, role perception, competencies (ability) (MARS model) PERSONALITY TRAITS 1) Locus of Control general belief about the amount of control he/she has over personal life of events Internal believe that personal characteristics mainly influence life’s outcomes > more positive self-evaluation > perform better, suited for leadership positions > satisfied with job, cope better with stress, motivated by performance-based rewards > less absenteeism, more involved in jobs External believe events in their life are mainly due to fate, luck, conditions in the external environment > control over events is uncertain 2) Machiavellianism degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends justify means > productive at bargaining, may act unethically 3) Self-Monitoring ability to adjust behavior to external situational factors > High → able to behave differently in different situations > Low → unable to disguise themselves → behave the same way in every situation > more mobile, tend to receive more promotions VALUES IN THE WORKPLACE: Stable beliefs that guide preferences. Defines from right or wrong. Espoused Values Values we say and often think we use Enacted Values Values we actually rely on to guide our decisions and actions Values Congruence when 2 or more entities have similar value systems When values don’t match: > lowered job satisfaction, loyalty, commitment > increased stress and turnover Benefits of congruence: > better decision making, prevents “corporate cults” Perceptions Process of receiving, organizing, interpreting sensory perceptions in order to give meaning to their environment Factors influencing perception: Situational, Perceiver, Target 1) Situational : time, work setting, social setting 2) Perceiver : attitudes, motives, interests, experience, expectations 3) Target: novelty, motion, sounds, size, background, proximity Stereotyping assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social category > to develop categories, assign traits to people (particularly personalities/non-observable features) Example: Professors = must be intelligent Advantage: helps process a lot of information Disadvantage: distorts our perceptions because stereotypes are not always true, can lead to discrimination Self-Fulfilling Prophecy perceptual process in which our expectations about another person will cause that person to act in a way consistent with those expectations SELF FULFILLING PROPHECY CYCLE 1) Supervisor forms expectations about employee 2) Supervisors expectations affect behavior towards the employee 3) Supervisor’s behavior affects employees ability and motivation (self-confidence) 4) Employee’s behavior becomes more consistent with supervisor’s initial expectations Example: women perform less well on math tests after being informed that men tend to perform better on them. > stronger when several people hold the same expectations > stronger on low achievers OTHER PERCEPTUAL EFFECTS Halo-Effect Perceptual error whereby our general impression of a person, usually based on prominent characteristic, colors our perception of other characteristics of the person > distorts perception of other characteristics > likely to occur when concrete information is missing Example: Supervisor who values punctuality notices that an employee is occasionally late for work → negative impression and unfavorable evaluation Recency Effect perceptual error: most recent information dominates our perception of others > most common with people with limited experiences > recent information dominates evaluation Contrast Effect a person’s evaluation is affected by comparisons with other individuals recently encountered False-Consensus Effect overestimate the extent to which others have beliefs and characteristics similar to out own > also called ‘similar-to-me-effect’ Attribution Theory perceptual process of deciding whether an observed behavior or event is caused largely by internal/external factors > Internal factors: under control of the individual, includes ability and motivation > External factors: forced by outside factors Fundamental Attribution Error tendency to see the person rather than the situation as the main cause of that person’s behavior > to view others actions mainly by internal attributions - but recognize both internal and external causes of our actions Example: employee is late → think he’s not motivated own lateness → blame on external factors (traffic jams etc.) Self-Serving Bias tendency to attribute our favorable outcomes to internal factors and failures to external factors > take credit for our successes, blame others or the situations for our mistakes > people generate a more positive self-concept by replying on external causes of failure and internal causes of success EMOTIONS AND ATTITUDES Emotions Psychological, behavioral, physiological episodes experienced toward an object, person, or events that create a state of readiness > always directed toward someone or something > subtle, occurs without awareness Example: experiencing joy, fear, fear, anger (or other emotional episodes) Moods > aren’t directed toward anything in particular > tends to be longer-term emotional states Affect the evaluation that emotions generate, that something is good or bad, helpful or harmful, to be approached or to be avoided Emotional Labour the effort planning, and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal interactions > particularly occurs in service industries with frequent face-to-face interaction with clients Felt Emotions individual’s actual emotions Displayed Emotions emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in agiven job Emotional Dissonance conflict between required and true emotions > leads to stress, job burnout, psychological separation from self Highest when: > variety of emotions > emotions are intense > long interactions > enforced display rules Emotional Intelligence (E.I.) the ability to (1) monitor our own and others’ feelings and emotions, to (2) discriminate between them, and to (3) use this as information to guide our own thinking and actions DIMENSIONS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE 1) Relationship Management: managing Highest other people’s emotions 2) Social Awareness: perceiving and understand the meaning of others’ emotions Example: sensing office politics, understanding social networks 3) Self-Management: managing our own emotions 4) Self-Awareness: perceiving and Lowest understanding the meaning of our own emotions Attitudes cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings, and behavioral intentions toward a person/object/event > more stable over time than emotions > includes justifications Beliefs established perceptions about the attitude object > what we “believe to be true” > perceived facts acquired from experience and other forms of learning Feelings represent your conscious positive, negative evaluations of the attitude object > feelings are calculated from beliefs > negative perception (belief) → negative feelings Behavioral Intentions motivation to engage in a particular behavior regarding the attitude object > behavioral intentions motivated by the attitude object > actions depend on past experience, personality, social norms of ‘appropriate behavior’ Cognitive Dissonance when we perceive inconsistency between beliefs, feelings, behavior *Behavior = Feelings ≠ Attitude* > when behavior cannot be changed, we change our emotions/attitudes to match behavior > reduced cognitive dissonance → rebalanced self-concept Will lead to: > lower attendance > higher turnover > lower job satisfaction > higher level job burnout Job Satisfaction a person’s evaluation of his/her work context > links to performance: task performance, quitting, absenteeism, organizational citizenship > better customer service, productivity > lower absenteeism, turnover EVLN MODEL Exit > leaving the organization > job dissatisfaction built over time Voice > any attempt to change Example: recommending ways for improvement with extreme ways Loyalty > respond to dissatisfaction by patiently waiting Neglect > reducing work effort > less attention to quality > increasing absenteeism, lateness *Dissatisfaction is more likely to lead toward EVLN rather than reduced performance* Organizational Commitment degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization 1) Affective Commitment employees emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization > knows how performance is measured > enjoy environment, rewarded for individual performance *the feeling of loyalty to the workplace* 2) Continuance Commitment calculated attachment to the organization > value of staying > value of working somewhere else Example: “I hate this place but I can’t afford to quit!” *staying only because leaving is costly* AFFECTIVE CONTINUANCE Advantages Disadvantages > significant competitive advantage > lowered performance > less likely to quit jobs/absent > less organizational citizenship > higher work motivation and organizational > formal grievances commitment > improves customer satisfaction > somewhat related to performance Disadvantages > high conformity → lower creativity > violation of laws to defend the organization 3) Normative Commitment obligation an individual feels to stay within an organization Example: family businesses WORKPLACE STRESS Stress an adoptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to a person’s wellbeing > body’s resistance to stress can only last so long before exhaustion sets in General Adaptation Syndrome model of stress experience consisting of 3 stages: Alarm reaction, Resistance, Exhaustion 1) Alarm Reaction > mobilize resources > occurs when a threat/challenge activates the physiological stress responses > energy level decreases 2) Resistance > cope with stressor > activates various biochemical, psychological, behavioral mechanisms 3) Exhaustion > reserves depleted > increased risk of physiological and psychological damage (under long term stress) CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS Physiological: cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, headaches Behavioral: work performance declines, accidents, absenteeism, aggression → poor decisions Psychological: dissatisfaction, moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue Job Burnout process of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, reduced personal accomplishment > results from prolonged exposure to stressors > consequence of distress 1) Emotional Exhaustion lack of energy, tiredness, a feeling that emotional resources are depleted 2) Cynicism tendency to strictly follow rules and regulations rather to adapt to the needs of others > also-called depersonalization > an indifferent attitude towards work, emotional detachment from clients, a cynical view of the organization Example: Why bother? No motivation. 3) Reduced Personal Accomplishment feelings of diminished confidence in
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