22 Pages
Unlock Document

Simon Fraser University
Business Administration
BUS 272
Kirsten Robertson

BUS 272 FINAL EXAM NOTES Week 7 – Team Dynamics Team: groups of 2 or more people that interact and influence each other > mutually accountable for achieving common goals > held together by interdependence and need for collaboration > amount of influence to each other varies Model of Team Effectiveness 1) Organizational and team environment All conditions beyond teams boundaries that influence its effectiveness 1. Rewards : increase efficiency 2. Communication 3. Organizational Structure 4. Organizational Leadership: provides support and strategic information 5. Physical Space: working more closely increases efficacy 2) Team Design 1. Task Characteristics 2. Team Size 3. Team Composition Task Characteristics > teams work best with well-structured tasks → easier to coordinate work > team structure 1. Complexity of task: Requires more skill and knowledge that a single person can handle 2. Task structure: Enables coordination 3. Task interdependence Task Interdependence the extent to where team members must share materials, information, expertise to perform their jobs > higher task interdependence → higher need for teams 3 Levels of Task Interdependence: Team Size > must be large enough to provide skills but small enough for coordination and involvement Advantages of small teams: > small process loss > increased trust between members > increased influence over others > increased responsibility for teams’ success or failure Team Composition 5C’s + D 1. Cooperating willingness to work together rather than alone > sharing resources > being adaptive/flexible to other team members ex. Rescheduling use of machinery for members with a tight deadline 2. Coordinating Task managing the teams work Oriented > keeping team on track > help integrate work performed by different members (requires knowing work of others) 3. Communicating transmitting information freely > respecting > efficient means of communicating > listen actively 4. Comforting providing psychological support > show empathy > provide comfort Maintenance > building feelings of confidence and self worth 5. Conflict Resolving skills and motivation to resolve dysfunctional disagreements > use of conflict handling styles > identification and resolving sources of conflict 6. Diversity effective for solving complex problems > creativity in solutions > broad knowledge base > prone to conflict > take longer to bond → take longer to maintain high performance 3) Team Processes 1. Team Development 2. Team Norms 3. Team Cohesiveness 4. Team Trust Team Development forming and reinforcing team roles Roles set of behaviors that people are expected to perform because they hold certain positions in a team > Formal rules: formal job responsibilities > Informal roles: ex. Supporting team members Team Norms unstated rules of how to do things within a group > informal rules > shared expectations > established to regulate behavior of members > only apply to behavior and not thoughts and feelings > develop when team forms > influenced by: events, learning of new behaviors, past experiences Make sure initial norms are functional, to do so: > state desirable norms > choose the right people with appropriate values > provide leaders and rewards Team Cohesion emotional attachment and motivation to remain within the team Influenced by 6 factors: 1. Member similarity: similar attraction effect, less effective when there is diversity 2. Team Size: smaller teams tend to be more cohesive 3. Member interaction: increases cohesion, especially important during high interdependence 4. Somewhat difficult entry: team eliteness increases cohesion 5. Team success: increases social identity with the team 6. External challenges: challenges increase cohesion when not overwhelming Outcomes of Cohesion: Ideal: Team with functional norm and high cohesiveness Worst: dysfunctional norm and low cohesion *Functioning norms are more important that cohesiveness* Team trust how much you trust your members and willingness to take risks 1. Identification-based Trust High 2. Knowledge-based Trust 3. Calculus-based Trust Low Identification-based Trust trust based on common mental models, values and emotional attachment Knowledge-based Trust trust cause you believe in the person’s ability and competency > higher potential of trust because it is developed over time → increased stability Calculus-based Trust trust cause the person will be punished if their actions violate expectations Five Stage Model Storming: brainstorming goals and rules Norming: reached agreement, begin task Performing: working stage Adjouring: finish → leave > the amount of time spent on each stage varies > reasons for going backwards: ex. New members Punctuated Equilibrium Model > teams need stress (deadline) to start working > starting late doesn’t mean bad performance > most time is spent doing nothing Week 9 – Conflict and Negotiation Conflict when one party perceives that its interests are being opposed/negatively affected by another party Advantages of conflict: Disadvantages of conflict: > energizes debate > decreases relationships > increases cohesion > waste energy > improve responsiveness > may lead to job dissatisfaction, turnover, stress > reflect on own assumptions > decreases productivity and the sharing of information > decreases communication Types of Conflict: Constructive Conflict conflict aimed at issues, not parties > depends on how subject perceives criticism > maintains respect for opposing parties > encourages people to present different views > may generate defensive behavior and personal attacks Relationship Conflict conflict focused on characteristics of an individual, aimed at person not issues/tasks > contains perceptual biases > distorts info processing Ex. Sherona you’re a fat ass and all your ideas are stupid. Conflict Escalation Cycle Strategies to minimize relationship conflict: 1. High emotional intelligence 2. Cohesive Teams > emotion regulation = less defensive behavior > you know each other well = not easily offended > lowered risk of escalating perceptions > mutual trust > motivated to stop relationship conflict 3. Supportive team norms > hold conflict before it happens 6 Structural sources of conflict: 1. Incompatible Goals > One party’s goals perceived to interfere with others’ goals 2. Differentiation > different values/beliefs, potential misunderstandings > “us-them” effect > explains cross-cultural and generational conflict 3. Task > must share resources/information etc. Interdependence > increases risk of conflict 4. Scarce > ex. Not enough money to support both projects resources > motivates competition for resource > major source of friction 5. Ambiguous > or complete lack of rules → breeds conflict roles > creates uncertainty, threatens goals = rely on politics, bend/make rules up 6. Communication > misunderstanding Problems > increased stereotyping > decreases motivation to communicate = escalates conflict Conflict Resolution 1. Problem Solving trying to find solution that’s beneficial for everyone > trying to find common ground for everyone, info sharing > win-win orientation > the opposing party may take advantage of the shared information 2. Forcing to win the conflict at others’ expense > I win –you lose orientation > may damage long term relations and escalate chance of relationship conflict 3. Avoiding trying to smooth over/avoid conflict situations > low concern for self and other party > try to find avoid thinking about the conflict (ex. Try to minimize interaction) 4. Yielding completely giving in to the other side’s wishes > cooperating with little or no attention to own interests > increases future expectations 5. Compromising looking for position where losses = gained values Negotiation process when 2 opposing parties attempt to resolve divergent goals by redefining the terms of their independence Types of negotiations: 1. Distributive Bargaining 2. Integrative Bargaining > fixed resources > varying resources > I win, you lose orientation > win-win orientation > opposing interests > congruent interests > short term relationship > long term relationship BATNA (best alternative to a negotiated agreement) estimates power in negotiation > allows you to push opponent harder > you could easily walk away > problem: people tend to overestimate their own BATNA Bargaining Zone area of potential overlap Goal: to figure out opponent’s resistant point Steps:
More Less

Related notes for BUS 272

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.