One-to-many: the traditional communication model
Promotion: The coordination of a marketer’s communication efforts to influence attitudes or
Integrate marketing communication (IMC): A strategic business process that marketers use to
plan, develop, execute, and evaluate coordinated, measurable, persuasive brand
communication programs over time to targeted audiences.
Multichannel promotional strategy: A marketing communication strategy where they combine
traditional advertising, sales promotion, and public relations activities with online buzz-building
Word-of-mouth communication: Communication that takes place when consumers provide
information about products to other consumers.
The communications model
Communications model: The process whereby meaning is transferred from a source to a
The source encodes
Encoding: The process of translating an idea into a form of communication that will covey
Source: An organization or individual that sends a message.
Message: The communication in physical form that goes from a sender to a receiver.
Medium: A communication vehicle through which a message is transmitted to a target
The receiver decodes
Receiver: The organization or individual that intercepts and interprets the message.
Decoding: The process by which a receiver assigns meaning to the message.
Noise: Anything that interferes with effective communication.
Feedback: Receivers’ reactions to the message.
The traditional promotion mix
Promotion mix: The major elements of marketer-controlled communication, including
advertising, sales promotion, public relations, personal selling, and direct marketing.
Mass communication: Relates to television, radio, magazines, and newspapers.
Advertising: Nonpersonal communication from an identified sponsor using mass media.
Many-to-many: the new media communication model
Groundswell: A social trend in which people use technology to get the things they need from
each other, rather than from traditional institutions like corporations.
Buzz: Word-of-mouth communication that customers view as authentic.
Viral marketing: Marketing activities that aim to increase brand awareness or sales by
consumers passing a message along to other consumers.
Brand ambassadors or brand evangelists
Brand ambassadors or brand evangelists: Loyal customers of a brand recruited to communicate
and be sales people with other consumers for a brand they care a great deal about. New social media
Social media: Internet-based platforms t