Advertising, Public Relations, Promotions, Direct Marketing and Personal Selling (chapter 11)
Types of advertising
Product advertising: message focuses on specific good or service
Institutional advertising: promotes the activities, personality, or point of view of an
organization or company
Corporate advertising: promotes the company as a whole instead of the
firm’s individual products.
Advocacy advertising: state an organization’s position on an issue to sway
Public service advertisements: messages promote not-for-profit
organizations that serve society in some way
Retail and local advertising: encourage customers to shop at a specific store or use
a local service.
Ethical issues in advertising:
Advertising is manipulative
Advertising is deceptive and untruthful
Advertising is offensive and in bad taste
Advertising creates and perpetuates stereotypes
Advertising causes people to buy things they don’t really need
DEVELOP THE ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN
Step 1: Understand the target audience
Step 2: Establish message and budget objectives
Informative (introduction stage)
Reminder (declined stage)
Step 3: Create the ads
Creative element of advertising
Appeals: a reason for a person to buy a product
Information appeals or appeals emotion (fear, humour, sex)
Execution formats: comparison /demonstration/ testimonial/ slice
of life/ lifestyle
Tonality: mood or attitude the message conveys (straightforward/
Creative tactics and techniques: animation and art/ celebrities/
music/jingles and slogans
Step 4: Protest what the ads will say
Step 5: Choose the media types and media schedule
TV/ Radio/ Internet Newspapers /Magazines
Media mix decision
Cost per contract: the cost of reaching one member of the target
Reach: the number of target consumer exposed to a commercial at
least once during a time period
Frequency: the number of times an individual is exposed to a
message during a time period
Audience selectivity: the ability of an advertising medium to reach a
precisely defined market.
Continuous Media Schedule: Advertising is run steadily throughout
Flighted Media Schedule: Advertising is run heavily every other
month or every two weeks.
Pulsing Media Schedule: Advertising combines continuous
scheduling with flighting.
Seasonal Media Schedule: Advertising is run only when the product
is likely to be used.
Step 6: Evaluate the advertising
Posttesting : Assessing advertisement’s effectiveness after it has appeared
3ways to measure the impact of and ad.
Unaided recall: by telephone survey or personal interviews whether
a person remembers seeing an ad during a specified period without
giving the person the name of the brand.
Aided recall: uses the name of the brand and sometimes other clues
to prompt answers
Attitudinal measures: testing consumers’ beliefs or feelings about a
product before and after they are exposed to messages about it
•Comparative: emphasizes messages with direct or indirect promotional comparisons
between competing brands