BUS 381 REVIEW.docx

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Business Administration
BUS 381
Patrice Kirkham

BUS 381 Review Strategies, Trends & Challenges in HRM Operational HRM: (traditional administrative category) – HR professionals hire and maintain employees and then manage employee separations Strategic HR: HR is focused on ensuring the organization is staffed with the most effective human capital to achieve its strategic goals Describe how Human Resource Management supports organizational strategies.  Ensures organization finds and hire the best individuals available, develops the talent, creates a productive work environment and continually builds and monitors these human assets Explain environment trends that are impacting Human Resource Management.  Economic Conditions – supply/demand for products and services = # of employees to hire and the ability of an employer to pay wages and provide benefits o Primary Sector: agriculture, fishing and trapping, forestry and mining (4%) o Secondary Sector: manufacturing and construction (decreased to 19%) o Tertiary or Service Sector: public admin, personal and business services, finance, trade, pubic utilities, and transportation/communications (grown to 77%)  Labour Market (Workforce) Issues – Increasing workforce diversity (employment rate for women, aboriginal population, disabled people, generational differences, demographics (age, sex, race), education, non-standard/contingent workers) o Traditionalists: born before 1946 – tend to be quiet, loyal and self-sacrificing o Baby Boomers: (1946-1964) – largest group in workforce. They are career-focused and driven to succeed. They are now aging and approaching retirement o Sandwich Generation: care for children and elderly relatives o Generation X: (1965-1980) – first technology literate generation, tend to be independent and security to them means transferability of skills. They value flexible work-life arrangements & continuous skill development o Generation Y: (1980+) – entering the workforce, are techno-savvy, comfortable w/ diversity & eager to make a contribution. Tend to be impatient & action-oriented.  Government – 14 different jurisdictions therefore different laws (ex. Minimum wage) – human rights, employment standards, labour relations, occupational health and safety, workers’ compensation  Technology – concerns for line btw work and family being blurred – questions about data control, accuracy, right to privacy and ethics a major concern  Globalization – emergence of a single global market for most products/services (increased international competition) – need to know employment legislation in other countries  Environmental Concerns – younger generations want to work for environmentally responsible companies Discuss the changing nature of the employment relationship. The Legal Context Summarize the key federal and provincial laws that affect HRM including employment standards, privacy, worker's compensation, discrimination, labour relations and safety.  Constitutional Law o Charter of Rights and Freedoms – applies to all levels of gov’t; guarantees fundamental freedoms to all Canadians (included are equity rights – no discrimination against age, sex, colour, religion, mental or physical disability)  Legislated Acts of Parliament o Income Tax Act  Regulations for Legislation Acts – rules to aid interpretation of laws  Common Law – judicial precedents  Contract Law – collective agreements/employment contracts Discuss the legal compliance issues as they relate to Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) Discuss the legal compliance issues as they relate to Privacy Discuss the legal compliance issues as they relate to safety Articulate and understand key legal issues that must be addressed and followed in all aspects pertaining to employees: i.e. recruitment, compensation, and termination. Define discrimination and understand the impact of a bona fide occupational requirement and an employer’s duty to accommodate.  Discrimination: distinction, exclusion or preference based on a prohibited ground which nullifies or impairs a person’s rights to full and equal recognition and exercise of human rights and freedoms  Bona Fide Occupational Requirement: a justifiable reason for discrimination based on business necessity (required for the safe/efficient operation of the company) or a requirement that is intrinsically required by the tasks an employee is expected to perform (ex. Truck driver must have sight)  Responsibility of employer – must accommodate to point of undue hardship (Undue hardship = financial cost of accommodation or health and safety risks to the individual or other employees make accommodation impossible) Give an example of systemic versus intentional discrimination  Intentional discrimination: employer cannot discriminate by deliberately refusing to hire, train or promote an individual. It is not necessary obvious and can be difficult to prove. (ex. They can’t ask female applicants for a factory job to show their lifting skills unless they ask all applicants)  Unintentional Discrimination (Systemic): difficult to detect and combat. Its embedded in policies and practices that appear neutral on the surface and are implemented impartially but have an adverse impact on specific groups of ppl for reasons that are not job related or required for the safe & efficient operation of the business (ex. Minimum height & weight requirements, limited accessibility to company premises which pose a barrier to persons w/ mobility limitations) Describe sexual harassment and methods of dealing with it in an organization (ensure you discuss importance of policy here)  Sexual Harassment: offensive or humiliating behavior that is related to a person's sex, as well as behaviour of a sexual nature that creates an intimidating, unwelcome, hostile, or offensive work environment or that could reasonably be thought to put sexual conditions on a person’s job or employment opportunities o Sexual Coercion - harassment of a sexual nature that results in some direct consequence to the worker's employment status or some gain in or loss of tangible job benefits o Sexual Annoyance - sexually related conduct that is hostile, intimidating, or offensive to the employee but has no direct link to tangible job benefits or loss thereof  To reduce liability, employers should establish sound harassment policies, communicate policies, enforce policies in a fair and consistent manner, and take an active role in maintaining an environment free of harassment.  Effective harassment policies: o have a clear workplace anti-harassment policy statement o information for victims o employees’ rights and responsibilities o employers’ and managers’ responsibilities o have clear workplace anti-harassment policy procedures o penalties for retaliation against a complainant o guidelines for appeals o other options such as union grievance procedures and human rights complaints o how the policy will be monitored and adjusted What is the Employment Equity and How to Implement it. (6 steps)  Employment Equity: based on Charter of rights (protects women, visible minorities, persons with disabilities, aboriginal peoples) – removes employment barriers & promotes equity, tries to achieve a balanced representation of designated group members in the organization 1. Senior-Management Commitment and Support – a written policy endorsed by senior management and distributed to every employee is essential 2. Data Collection and Analysis – comparison of internal workforce representation w/ external workforce availability = utilization analysis  this is necessary to determine the degree of underutilization and concentration of designated group members in specific occupations or at particular organizational levels 3. Employment Systems Review – to determine the impact of policies and procedures manuals, collective agreements, and informal practices on designated group members so that existing intentional or systemic barriers can be eliminated 4. Plan Development – quantifiable goals and reasonable timetables – positive measures, accommodation measures, supportive measures 5. Implementation – process that transforms goals, timetables and special measures into reality 6. Monitoring, Evaluating, and Revising – need a control system so you can measure progress and success Discuss the employer/employees’ responsibilities as they relate to safety in a provincially legislated workplace Analyzing Work and Designing Jobs Describe job analysis and explain why it is the foundation of Human Resource Management practices.  Job Analysis: procedure for determining the tasks, duties and responsibilities of each job, and the human attributes (in terms of KSA’s) required to perform it  Steps in Job Analysis: 1. Identify what the information will be used for – this determines what types of data to collect and technique used 2. Review relevant background information – such as organization charts, process charts, and existing job descriptions 3. Select representative positions/jobs to be analyzed 4. Analyze the jobs – by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job 5. Review analysis with incumbent/supervisor – helps to confirm info and gain employee’s acceptance 6. Develop job description/job specification  Job analysis –interrelated to lots of HRM activities o Human Resources Planning – essential for planning future staffing needs o Recruitment and Selection – use job description/specification to decide what sort of person to recruit and hire o Compensation o Performance Appraisal o Labour Relations – union need to approve job descriptions o Training, Development and career management o Job Design Explain various methods for conducting job analysis.  Qualitative Job Analysis Technique: most popular methods (often combine 2+ qualitative techniques) o Interview – individual, group supervisory o Questionnaires – how structured should the question be and what questions to include o Observation – direct observation useful when jobs consist mainly of observable physical activities o Participant Diary/Log – each employee records each activity along with time spent in a log  Quantitative Job Analysis Techniques: good for pay purposes o Position Analysis Questionnaire: very structured o Functional Job Analysis: rates job on responsibilities for data people and things, identifies performance standards and training requirements for a job o National Occupational Classification (NOC) – reference tool for writing job description/specifications, compiled by federal gov’t, over 30,000 occupations Understand the various elements/information within a job description and be able to write a complete job description with appropriate headings, information, etc.  Job Description – list of duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, and working conditions of a job o Job Identification:  Position  Location  Department  Reports to  Date o Job Summary – lists major functions or activities o Duties and Responsibilities o Relationships – relationships inside and outsider company o Performance Standards o Authority – define limits of jobholder’s authority o Working Conditions and Physical Environment – noise level, lighting, degree of privacy, hours of work  Job Specifications - Job requirements regarding: o Human traits o Experience o Skill o Effort
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