****new employees need a clear understanding of company policies, of expectations
regarding their performance, and of operating procedures. In the long term, a comprehensive
orientation (also called onboarding) program can lead to reductions in turnover, increased
morale, fewer instances of corrective discipline, and fewer employee grievances. It can also
reduce the number of workplace injuries, particularly for young workers.****
Purpose of orientation programs
Employee orientation (onboarding): a procedure for providing new employees with basic
background information about the firm and the job.
Socialization: the ongoing process of instilling in all employees the prevailing attitudes,
standards, values, and patterns of behavior that are expected by the organization.
****orientation is actually one component of the employer’s new-employee socialization
process. During the time required for socialization to occur, a new employee is less than fully
productive. A strong onboarding program can speed up the socialization process and result in
the new employee achieving full productivity as quickly as possible.****
Reality shock: the state that results from the discrepancy between wheat the new
employee expects from his or her new job and the realities of it.
****orientation helps the employee to perform better by providing necessary information
about company rules and practices.****
The training process
Training: the process of teaching employees the basic skills/competencies that they need to
perform their jobs.
****training might thus mean showing a production worker how to operate a new machine, a
new salesperson how to sell the firm’s product, or a new supervisor how to interview and
appraise employees. whereas training focuses on skills and competencies needed to perform
employees’ current jobs, development is training of a long-term nature. Its aim is to prepare
current employees for future jobs within the organization.****
****it is important to ensure that business and training goals are aligned and that training is
part of an organization’s strategic plan. A training professional in today’s business world has
to understand the organization’s business, speaking its language, and demonstrate the
business value of training investment.****
****another benefit of increased training is the fact that training can strengthen employee
commitment. today’s young employees view learning and growth as the pathway to a
successful and secure future and are attracted to organizations that have a commitment to
keeping and growing their talent. **** The five-step training process
****the purpose of the needs analysis step is to identify the specific job performance skills
needed, to analyze the skills and needs of the prospective trainees, and to develop specific,
measurable knowledge and performance objectives.(Managers must make sure that the
performance deficiency is amenable to training rather than caused by, say, poor morale
because of low salaries.) in the second step, in structional design the actual content of the
training program is compiled and produced, including workbooks, exercises, and activities.
The third step is validation, in which the bug are worked out of the training program by
presenting it to a small representative audience. Fourth, the training program is implemented;
using techniques like on-the-job training and programmed learning. Fifth, there should be
evaluation and follow-up step in which the programs’ successes or failures are assessed.****
Step1: training needs analysis
****the first step in training is to determine what training is required, if any. The main task in
assessing the training needs of employees is to determine what the job entails and break it
down into subtasks, each of which is then taught to the new employee. Assessing the training
needs of current employees can be more complex, because it involves the added task of
deciding whether or not training is the solution. For example, performance may be down not
because of lack of training but because the standards are not clear or because the person is
****task analysis and performance analysis are the two main techniques for identifying
Task analysis: a detailed study of a job to identify the skills and competencies it requires so that
an appropriate training program can be instituted.
****task analysis—an analysis of the job’s requirements---is especially appropriate for
determining the training needs of employees who are new to their job.****
Performance analysis: verifying that there is a performance deficiency and determining whether
that deficiency should be rectified through training or through some other means(such as
transferring the employee).
****performance analysis appraises the performance of current employees to determine
whether training could reduce performance problems.
Task analysis: assessing the training needs of new employees
****task analysis—identifying the broad competencies and specific skills required to perform
job-related tasks---is used for determining the training needs of employees who are new to
their jobs. Thus, the aim is to develop the skills and knowledge required for effective
performance. The job description and job specification are helpful here. These list the specific
duties and skills required on the job and become the basic reference point in determining the
training required to perform the job.****
Task analysis record form
****some employers supplement the current job description and specification with a task
analysis record form. This consolidates information regarding the job’s required tasks and
skills in a form that is especially helpful for determining training requirements.****
1. The job’s main tasks and subtasks are listed
2. When and how often performed. Here, the frequency with which the task and
subtasks are performed is indicated.
3. Quantity and quality of performance. Here, The standards of performance for each
task and subtask are described in measurable terms.
4. Conditions under which performed. This column indicates the conditions under
which the tasks and subtasks are to be performed. 5. Competencies and specific knowledge required. This is the heart of the task
analysis form. Here, the competencies and specific skills or knowledge required
for each task and subtask are listed, specifying exactly what knowledge or skills
must be taught. Thus, for the subtask “set cutting distance,” the trainee must be
taught how to read the gauge.
6. Where best learned. The decision as to whether the task is learned best on or off
the job is based on several considerations.
****once the essential skills involved in doing the job are determined, new employees’
proficiency in these skills can be assessed and training needs indentifies for each
Performance analysis: determining the training needs of current employees.
****performance analysis means verifying whether there is a significant performance
deficiency and, if so, determining whether that deficiency should be rectified through training
or some other means (such as transferring the employee).****
****distinguishing between can’t do and won’t do problems is at the heart of performance
analysis. first, the firm must determine whether it is a can’t do problem, and if so, its specific
casues. For example, the employees do not know what to do or what the standards are; there
are obstacles in the system (such as a lock of tools or supplies); job aids are needed; poor
selection has resulted in hiring people who do not have the skills to do the job; or training is
anadequate. Conversly, it might be a won’t do problem. In this case, employees could do a
good job if they wanted to. If so, the reward system might have to be changed, perhaps by
implementing an incentive program.****
Step5: evalutation of training
Transfer of training: application of the skills acquired during the training program into the work
environment, and the maintenance of these skills over time.
Controlled experimentation: formal methods for testing the effectiveness of a training program,
preferably with a control group and with tests before and after training.
Training effects to measure
1. Reaction: first, evaluate