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CHEM 120 (3)

Final Exam Review great overall review of all concepts covered

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CHEM 120
Richard Oakley

CHEM 120Exam Key Concepts Chapter 1 Matter its Properties and Measurements States of mattersolid liquid gas Significant figuresi count from left to right starting from first nonzero digitiiandsame decimal places as the number with the fewest decimal placesiii x and same decimal places as the number with the fewest decimal placesiv round off digit is increased if next digit5 Common SI unitslength meter m mass Kilogram kg time second stemperature Kelvin K amount mole 6022x1023atoms in exactly 12g C12 Common NON SI unitslength angstrom A 108 cmvolume Litre L 103 m3energy calorie cal 4184J pressure1 atmos1064x102 kPa760 mmHg Derived Quantitiesforce ma Newton kg ms pressure Pascal kgm s2energy Joule kg m2s2 Precisionreproducibility Accuracycorrectness Chapter 2 Atoms and Atomic Theory Thomsonblueberry muffin model charge to mass ratio of an electron Millikanestablishes charge hence mass of electron 16 x 1019 C Rutherfordgold foil experiment provides nuclear model of atomempty space AtomsZatomic numberof protonsof electrons neutral atomAmass numberprotons neutrons Average Atomic Massisotope1percent100isotope2percent100Conversion Equations molesmassmolar mass moleculesmass6022x 1023 atomsmoleculesatoms in molecule Chapter 3 Chemical Compounds Structural formulascarboxylic acid COOH esterCOCH3 alcoholOH benzene ringether CH3 O CH3 aldehydeCOH aminoNH2 Aspirin C9H8O4 Acetaminophen C9H8N02 cissame transopposite across a double bond Isomersmolecules with a different shape but same chemical formula Empirical Formulapercent to mass mass to moles divide by small multiply until whole Combustion Analysisconvert each to moles divide by smallest and find empirical formula Oxidation State Rulesany element0 ionscharge of ion halogens1 unless bound to F or O H1 to nonmetals else 1 O2 unless bound to F or itself sumoverall charge Reducing agentsget oxidized loosegive away electrons oxidizing agentsgets reduced acceptsgains electrons Nomenclature cations ic IIIhigher ouslower II
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