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Final

CMNS 240 Study Guide - Final Guide: Graphic Design, Deskilling, Urban Renewal


Department
Communication
Course Code
CMNS 240
Professor
Enda Brophy
Study Guide
Final

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Key Features of Post-Fordism
Flexibility as key quality of post-Fordism
Flexible labour
Organize labour to rigid
Shift production → outsourcing
Raise of international division of labour
Part time job/ self-employment
Immaterial commodities/rapid turnover
fashion , games, technologies
Rapid shift in style → create new market for other trend → fast fashion
Needs new workforce → scientist, researchers
Niche marketing and consumption
Mostly associated with customized product
Increase in variety
More about market research → consumer first
Better feedback loop between consumption and production
Networked, flexible production
Key Features of Neoliberalism
1. An ideological framework: neoliberalism attaches positive connotations to market
priorities, forces, and institutions
Market is entrepreneur of yourself
2. Enclosure, or privatization: neoliberalism is associated with commodifying formerly
public resources
Transferring resources that were owned in market
Extension of the capitalism long history of market
International economic institute → World Bank
Lend money to countries to develop infrastructure
3. The neoliberal state enables these transformations through its policies
Restructuring relationship between states and economy
The states did not disappear
The state reconstruct economy more in the interest of the private sector
More away its role as a mediator
4. Deregulation: many of the previous limitations placed on private sector are
removed
Fewer rules on private sector
Government should get out from the economy
Week 7-Global Media, Convergence and Informal Economies
Introduction: Applying the Political Economy of Communication
So far, we have explored the roots of the PEC…
…and the shift toward post-Fordism and neoliberalism.
We can think of post-Fordism as the new regime of accumulation, and neoliberalism
as the new mode of regulation that have been in force since the 1970s.
Post-Fordism → flexibility → customized product
Neoliberalism → system of governance, customs and cultures which support
post-Fordism, new mode of regulation
New laws and policies developed which favours the new market
New political and economic content
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Media, Telecommunications, and Immaterial Commodities
In the first part of the course, we saw how Fordism suffered a terminal crisis in the
1970s.
Some believe one of the responses to this crisis is that capitalism depends more
heavily on the sale of immaterial, or intangible commodities
movie , website, phonecall
Quick turnover
Can be consumed over and over again
Public rivalrous
High cost to produce the first → cost to reproduce ~=0
This may alleviate the problems of overproduction and market saturation
Media and telecommunications companies are important producers of immaterial
commodities
Sector doubled size
Emergent pattern
Global Media
The largest media companies now operate transnationally: markets for advertising
and customers are global
In this lecture we will examine the main trends within the largest and most powerful
companies, and move downward
At the top, global media are organized around a core network of multi-media
corporations operating across the planet (like News Corp, Walt Disney, Time-Warner,
Viacom)
The companies are what media researchers Amelia Arsenault and Manuel Castells
call the core of the the global media system
Castells and Arsenault believe that “globalization, digitization, networking, and
cultural differentiation of media have induced new forms of organization, production,
and distribution through which these multi-national media businesses operate.”
The “second tier” of media companies is made up of large national and regional firms
that mostly operate within one country (like Mediaset, Grupo Prisa, and others)
These companies are the “products and agents” of deregulation, privatization, and
digitization of media under neoliberalism
Not only product of processes but they are enabling those process→ both
effect and result
Concentration of ownership: the degree to which the media landscape is owned
and/or controlled by a few industry players
Stronger firm buy out weaker firm out of business
Deregulation or Re-regulation?
Up until the 1980s most telecoms companies were publicly owned
With the rise of neoliberalism they were privatized: between 1984 and 1999 up to
USD $1 trillion worth of companies were sold off 1996 US Telecommunications Act
removed ownership restrictions
A wave of corporate consolidation follows
This process of privatization and deregulation happens in countries across the world
Domestic companies now face international competition
World Trade Organization, World Bank, and International Monetary Fund have
played key roles internationally
US Telecommunications Act
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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But… is this “deregulation” or simply reregulation?
McChesney notes: ‘The centrepiece of neoliberal policies is invariably a call for
commercial media and communication markets to be deregulated. What this means
in practice is that they are ‘‘re-regulated’’ to serve corporate interests’ (2001)
Media Privatization, concentration of ownership, and inter-firm cooperation
The same processes have been happening within the media industries as well
Public broadcasters have been slowly privatized and defunded
Media ownership is increasingly concentrated
1990-1995 → media merges proceeding 30 years combined
Industry players compete and collude on a case by case basis
Not entirely competitive → Collaborative, joints projects
Vertica integration
Vertical integration: describes the ownership of firms across a line of business that
extend a company’s control over the process of production
Forward integration → forward along production process
Backward integration → own raw materials
All of the major global media firms are vertically integrated
What about horizontal integration?
Convergence
Horizontal integration is often called convergence
Specifically, there has been convergence of ownership across previously separate
media and telecom industries
Own the means of transmission = own the content
Media conglomerates are now able to deliver a diversity of products over one
platform as well as one product over a diversity of platforms
This is possible through digitization, or the unification of different platforms through a
common digital language
Connect previously separated sectors
Many traditional media firms also saw convergence as a way to venture into the
internet market and to take advantage of evermore pervasive digital technologies and
neoliberal communication policies (Jin)
Corporate convergence doesn’t always work out though.
Global media companies blend into their local contexts, through partnerships and
customized content for local markets
Flexibility
Media convergence can be conceptualized in 3 ways (Henry Jenkins) (Jin)
As the flow of content across multiple media platforms
As the coming together of multiple media industries
As a consequence of the migratory behaviour of media audiences who will go
almost anywhere in search of the kinds of entertainment experience they
want
Other scholars view media convergence from three different perspectives (Jin)
Consolidation through industry alliances and mergers
The combination of technology and network platforms
Integration between services and markets
The loosening of cross-ownership rules, in particular, has been one of the most
significant factors that have allowed communication and media firms to expand
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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