CMNS 260 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Scientific Misconduct, Design Issues, Psychological Abuse

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Scientific misconduct
when someone engages in research fraud, plagiarism, or other unethical conduct
that significantly deviates from the accepted practice for conducting and reporting
research within the scientific community
Research fraud
when researcher fakes or invents data that he or she did not really collect, or
fails to honestly and fully report how he or she conducted a study
● Plagiarism
when one uses the writings or ideas of another without giving proper credit
Unethical but legal
behaviour may be unethical but legal→ not break any law
Power relations
a relationship of unequal power and trust
Ethical issues involving research participants
Origins of research participant protection
concern over the treatment of research participants arose after the revelation
of gross violations of basic human rights in the name of science
avoid physical harm
obtain informed consent
Physical harm, psychological abuse, and legal jeopardy
physical harm
rare 3-5%
psyc abuse, stress, or loss of self-esteem
legal harm
responsible for protecting research participants from increased risk of
Other harm to participants
negative impact on the careers,reputations or income
Maximizing benefit
minimizing harm
advancement of knowledge
● Deception
principle of voluntary consent
never force anyone to participate in research and do not lie to anyone
unless it is necessary and the only way to accomplish a legitimate
research purpose
deception and covert research may increase mistrust and cynicism and may
diminish public respect for social research
Informed consent
an agreement by participants stating they are willing to be in a study after
they learn something about what the research procedure will involve
Special populations and new inequalities
special populations
people who lack the necessary cognitive competency to give real
informed consent or people in a weak position who might compromise
their freedom to refuse to participate in a study
■ coercion
avoid creating new inequalities
when one group of people is denied a service or benefit as a result of
participating in a research
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crossover design→ when a group gets no treatment in the
rst phase of the experiment becomes the group with the
treatment in the second phase
Privacy, anonymity, and confidentiality
○ privacy
violate privacy only to the minimal degree, as necessary, and only for
legitimate research purposes
○ Anonymity
research participants remain anonymous or nameless
○ Confidentiality
information has participant names attached, but the researcher holds
it in confidence or keeps it secret from the public
Respect for human dignity
endeavours to safeguard the multifaceted interests of the person
Mandated protections of research participants
issued by the Interagency Advisory Panel on Research Ethics (PRE)
Ethics and the sponsors of research
○ whistle-blowing
the researcher who sees ethical wrongdoing but cannot stop it even
after informing superiors and exhausting internal avenues to resolve
the issue
then turns to outsiders and inform external audience,agency or
arriving at particular findings
limits on how to conduct studies
should refuse to continue a study if cannot uphold generally
accepted standards of research
suppressing findings
a researcher can negotiate conditions for releasing findings prior to
beginning the study and sign a contract to that effect
concealing the true sponsor
Politics of research
usually involves actions by organized advocacy groups, powerful interests in society,
governments, or politicians trying to restrict or control the direction of social research
share a desire to limit knowledge creation or restrict the autonomous scientific
investigation of controversial topics
fear that researchers might discover something damaging if they have freedom of
3 main causes
1. defend or advance positions and knowledge that originate in deeply held
ideological, political or religious beliefs and fear that social researchers might
produce knowledge that contradicts them
2. powerful interests want to protect or advance their political-financial
position and fear social researchers might yield findings showing that their
actions are harmful to the public or some sectors of society
3. do not respect the ideal of science to pursue truth and knowledge and
instead view scientific research only as a means for advancing private
Value-free and objective research
● value-free
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