CMNS 260 Study Guide - Quiz Guide: Social Impact Assessment, Qualitative Property, Ideal Type

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Ch.1
Alternatives to social research
● Authority
parents, teachers, books
quick simple and cheap
○ limitations
easy to overestimate the expertise of other people
authorities disagree→may not be equally dependable
may be plain wrong
misuse of authority
● Tradition
authority of the past
begins as simple prejudice
Common sense
valuable in daily living
allow logical fallacies to slip into thinking
contains contradictory ideas
Media Myths
TV shows, movies and newspaper
do not accurately reflect social reality
tend to perpetuate the myths of a culture
can have powerful effect
competing interests use the media to win public support
Personal Experience
can lead to astray
4 errors of personal experience
1. Overgeneralization
some evidence supports a belief, but a person falsely assumes that
ot applies to many other situations too
2. Selective Observation
tendency to take notice of certain people or events based on past
experience or attitudes
3.Premature Closure
when a person feels he or she has the answers and does not need to
listen, seek information, or raise questions any longer
4. Halo Effect
when a person overgeneralizes from what he or she accepts as
being highly positive or prestigious and let its strong reputation or
prestige “rub off” onto other areas
How science works
● Science
social institution and a means of producing knowledge
○ Data
quantitative→ numbers
qualitative→ words, image
empirical evidence→ observations that people experience through
the senses
Steps in the research process
1. Select topic
2. Focus question
3. Design study
4. Collect data
5. Analyze data
6. Interpret data
7. Inform others
Use of Research
Basic social research
designed to advance fundamental knowledge about the social world
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