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CMNS 110 Final: Study guide with W7-12 concepts

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Simon Fraser University
CMNS 110
Daniel Ahadi

CMNS 110 Final Exam Study guide • Principles of persuasion – Week 7  Reciprocation: obligation to give back  Commitment and consistency: public commitment  Social proof: act based on how others would act  Liking: charisma and physically appealing  Authority: persuaded by those who seem important  Scarcity: value is limited • Propaganda techniques – Week 7 & 8  Bandwagon: “everyone else is on it so jump on too”  Name-calling: negative words or feeling that attached to an idea, product or person  Glittering Generality: appealing term associated with highly valued concepts (e.g. Desire for freedom and peace)  Plain-Folks Appeal: idea/product/person that is relatable  Testimonials: influence of famous people  Disinformation: deliberate spreading of false information (misinformation is unintentional)  Emotional Words  Concealed purpose: part of the purpose is concealed therefore only the good side is shown  The False Statement  The Suppression of Truth  The Slanting of News  Fear • Citizen journalism  Collection and analysis of news and information by general public (now quite often seen by means of internet) • News values and Newsworthiness – Week 8  Proximity → Geographical and Cultural: depend on your geographical position and move outward from there.  Possible Future Impact: → How does this impact society?  Prominence: → Is someone important involved? (ex. President, PM, etc.)  Shock Value: → Ex. Explosion by gas leak, natural disaster, terrorism  Pathos: → “Tear Jerkers” - Interest in human misery/story,  Conflict: → Physical or Ideological, eg. military conflict • Pillars of democracy - The Media – Week 8 1st: legislative 2nd: executive 3rd: judiciary 4th: press and news(media) -->ensures the transparency of of the first three pillars The Crumbling fourth pillar  Government Control: Authority the government has over certain aspects of each citizen’s life.  Propaganda: Information of biased or misleading nature to promote/publicize particular political cause or POV → Kellner’s Definition (1992): Mode of discourse intended to persuade, manipulate, and indoctrinate audience into accepting policies that might be contrary to self interest  Bias: Prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.  Tabloidization: The transformation of news, literature, etc., into a popularized, lurid, and sensational form. (eg. how to recognize tabloidization newspaper. )  Advertising: eg. expenditure in newspaper  Monopoly: eg. media of monopoly • Media monopoly – Week 9  Is all about who owns the media? How the landscape has shifted?  Why we should be concerned? Public opinion can be shaped by a few of companies • Vertical & horizontal convergence of media  Horizontal convergence means when a company expands into other areas of one industry, eg. merging CCTV and other TV company  Vertical convergence means merging radio and TV → Can also mean new media and traditional media • Soft and hard news – Week 8 & 9 HARD  Important to many people, covers government, politics, foreign affairs, education, etc.  Timely  Why cover hard news? : Alex Boutilier - Toronto Star reporter: "Citizens have a right to know what the government is doing with their name and their money. SOFT  Less important (broadly speaking) , and more on entertainment → human interest (feel good stories)  Appeals to more emotions than intellect  informative(more locally, celebrities)  Direct focus away from real problems  Why cover soft news? : Stephen Keefe - Freelancer "(It) injects media, news and journalism with something the reader can relate to … it takes news to a … more personal level" : Colleen Jones - CBC reporter "It shows different sides to a city, a province, a community that traditional media doesn't show." • Media literacy – Week 9  Repertoire of competencies enable people to analyze, evaluate, and create messages in a wide variety of media modes, genres, and forms  Ability to understand underlying meanings of media text → What do the messages in media represent • Encoding/Decoding – Week 9 & 10 Encoding of Media ‘Text’ → Writers, producers, and production apparatus insert codes/conventions into media production → Producing: Choices are made → Ex. Photographers consider components like focusing, lighting, angle, composition, etc. To produce representations, readings, of the same moment Decoding of Media ‘Text’ → Viewers according to cultural knowledge and viewing context will make sense(decode) the media text → Suggests that media texts are polysemic = many meanings • Dominant, negotiated and oppositional meanings – Week 10 & 11 Dominant/Hegemonic/Preferred meaning  Audiences accept what is being presented without question  Identify with the encoded message of an image or text Eg. Hyper masculinity; athleticism & fitness; “coolness”; fashion Negotiated meaning  Audiences negotiate with the text’s intended meaning and accept only some of what is being presented Eg. Ideal body, BUT most people not part of this ideal Looking/smelling good is important, BUT not everyone can afford this Oppositional meaning  Audiences read completely against the preferred /dominant reading Eg. “Consumer Society” critique, Feminist critique=objectification of the body, Hyper- masculine reading: “too metrosexual” OR “too gay” • Semiotics, sign, signifier, signified – Week 9 & 10 Semiology = Study of signs and symbols (as they appear in “codes”) as elements of communication systems 1. Semiotic Analysis: Technique for studying language, media and culture → Built into other theories, used as toolkit for studying media texts in depth 2. Sign: Something (can be spoken/written word, pic
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