Communications 110 Post Midterm Notes
Cialdini 6 weapons of persuasions:
1. Reciprocity: As humans, we generally aim to return favors, pay back debts, and treat others
as they treat us. According to the idea of reciprocity, this can lead us to feel obliged to offer
concessions or discounts to others if they have offered them to us. This is because we're
uncomfortable with feeling indebted to them. For example, if a colleague helps you when you're
busy with a project, you might feel obliged to support her ideas for improving team processes.
You might decide to buy more from a supplier if they have offered you an aggressive discount.
Or, you might give money to a charity fundraiser who has given you a flower in the street.
2. Commitment (and Consistency): Cialdini says that we have a deep desire to be consistent.
For this reason, once we've committed to something, we're then more inclined to go through
with it. For instance, you'd probably be more likely to support a colleague's project proposal if
you had shown interest when he first talked to you about his ideas.
3. Social Proof: This principle relies on people's sense of "safety in numbers." For example,
we're more likely to work late if others in our team are doing the same, put a tip in a jar if it
already contains money, or eat in a restaurant if it's busy. Here, we're assuming that if lots of
other people are doing something, then it must be OK. We're particularly susceptible to this
principle when we're feeling uncertain, and we're even more likely to be influenced if the people
we see seem to be similar to us. That's why commercials often use moms, not celebrities, to
advertise household products.
4. Liking: Cialdini says that we're more likely to be influenced by people we like. Likability comes
in many forms – people might be similar or familiar to us, they might give us compliments, or we
may just simply trust them. Companies that use sales agents from within the community employ
this principle with huge success. People are more likely to buy from people like themselves,
from friends, and from people they know and respect.
5. Authority: We feel a sense of duty or obligation to people in positions of authority. This is why
advertisers of pharmaceutical products employ doctors to front their campaigns, and why most
of us will do most things that our manager requests. Job titles, uniforms, and even accessories
like cars or gadgets can lend an air of authority, and can persuade us to accept what these
6. Scarcity: This principle says that things are more attractive when their availability is limited, or
when we stand to lose the opportunity to acquire them on favorable terms. For instance, we
might buy something immediately if we're told that it's the last one, or that a special offer will
We also use semiotic shortcuts such as stereotypes and do not think or reflect and just respond,
as well as social experience vs. individual. FAP (Fixed Action Pattern): Or that insects know they need to eat (instinct) so they head for a
food source (fixed action pattern). Response to external stimulus usually initiates sequences of
Contrast Principle: How we perceive the difference between two things will be affected by the
order in which they are presented to us.
Cinema has production, distribution and exhibition. We are all based on our ideal images that
have shaped society.
Design features of language (Hockett)
Vocal-Auditory Channel – Spoken language is produced in the vocal tract and
transmitted/heard as sound, whereas sign language is produced with the hands and transmitted
Broadcast transmission and directional reception – The audible sound of language is heard in