Ott & Mack:
1) What are the four sub-categories of mass media?
a) Print media, motion picture and sound recording, broadcast media, and new
2) In what way did print media change society? How did broadcasting influence
a) Affected every aspect of human life by being able to record knowledge for future
generations and provided knowledge worldwide
b) Establishment of the printing press such as newspapers, magazines and almanacs.
c) Broadcasting deliver media to audiences instead of physically distributing it. The
audience receives media in their own homes through radio and television = large
demand for broadcast frequencies
3) Define: convergence, mobility, fragmentation, globalization, socialization.
a) Convergence: Different media sharing a common
Mobility: Media that is ubiquitous, which is accessible.
Fragmentation: The demassification of media meeting the needs and interests to
a diverse audience; catering to individual interests of certain members from the
Globalization: The interests and concerns from a social economic and political
view which the physical boundaries and policies are no longer applicable because
of social relations.
Socialization: A process in which people internalize, learn and adopt to the
prevailing values, cultural beliefs, attitudes and acceptable, standard behaviors of
4) Give three reasons why media content matters? Why is media form also
a) media determines which social issues are important for the audience to talk and
b) content not having different insights and opinions hinders the attention of public
discussion that is of importance
c) media content is discussed through symbols because the content is biased due to
the attitudes and beliefs it presents
d) Media form is also important because of how the message is put together and sent
which affects how we decode it
5) Define the four characteristics of critical studies.
a) Attitude: skeptical skepticism to analyze and understand how the message is
delivered. Using suspicion to determine the trustworthiness of the news.
Approach: humanistic The organization of departments into categories such as
social sciences, humanities, and natural sciences, to displaying a specific
difference in their respective subject matter.
Assessment: political This study deals with the political and practical
viewpoints of research, which will likely cause judgment. Action: social activism This study encourages action by standing up and
addressing the research as a social responsibility.
1) What were two of the indications that the media had significant power in
a) The impact of newspapers, advertising to large #s of people around WWI
b) WWII uses of media for propaganda to influence public opinion
2) What is/define: moral panic, mass society, mass audience, the public, mass
a) Moral panic: The negative influence from the media portrayal of violence, sex
and crime affecting society, but with little evidence to support those claims.
Mass society: The negative term to describe a common group of people who are
ignorant, uneducated and violent. It is also used as a positive way of describing
the strength and friendly working relationship among people.
Mass audience: Described as widely dispersed crowd who are unknown to each
other. They are not organized or act for themselves, but are focused on an object
by manipulation through the media.
The public: Relatively large and widely-dispersed. They form around a public
issue and seek an interest or opinion with the goal of having change.
Mass culture: A wider interest that represents the majority of people. Such
interests include preferences, tastes, styles and manners.
3) What is the underlying view and characteristics of society in the dominant
a) A normal functioning way that is good for society
b) Good qualities include democracy, freedom of speech and being well informed.
c) Characteristics include elections, liberal, free-market conditions, individualistic
ideas, consensual and peace.
4) Briefly describe the three theoretical elements in the dominant paradigm
functionalism, information theory and stimulus-response theory.
a) Functions of communication in society which deals with the necessary tasks to
perform maintenance towards continuity, integration and keeping society in order
b) Information theory dealing with the technical side to communication channels in
c) Methodological developments in measuring and analyzing data
d) * Offered new ways to discover generalized and relevant knowledge of the
influence of mass media and its effect on persuasion5) What were the main aims of research in the dominant paradigm?
a) To improve the effectiveness of communication for necessary needs such as
public information or advertising and assessing whether mass media affects social
6) What is the alternative, critical paradigm? How does this compare with the
dominant paradigm of communication research?
a) Not accepting the liberal-capitalist order
b) Compares with the dominant paradigm of communication research as being based
on a more complete view of communication as sharing and ritual instead of being
c) Motivated by strong value judgments of the media
7) What are the negative and positive links between mass communication and
a) More crime, immorality, loneliness, alienation
b) Cohesion, community building, entertainment
c) Theoretical, audiences, institutions (boxes)
Grossberg et al.
1) Explain the two notions/levels of power as outlined by the authors.
a) Power is capacity or determination as this is considered causality, Viewed as the