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CMNS 353 Midterm study notes.docx

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CMNS 353
Frederik Lesage

Week 2 Communication & Technology in the info society Information o Ex: Tower of Babel first time generated universal collection of ideas o Ex: Esperanto idea of universal Language o Ex: Francis Bacon The New Atlantis Categorical and hierarchical division of labour Specially trained people who go out to retrieve information about rest of world Systematic organization, control, and collection; for politics, trade and power o Ex: Bell labs mathematical theory of communication: o Ex: Shannons engineering approach model: Cmn broken down into 0s and 1s info source transmitter Receiver Destination Signal Received Message Message Noise Source Finally created a solution to engineering problem Way of thinking about information that is detached from message meaning o Data: is quant/qualitative values of particular variable (can be messy) o Information: Data thats organized and communicated ex: recipe book o Knowledge: understanding how to use the information ex: cooking The Network Society o Latter of 20 C. codified theoretical knowledge director of social change o Manuel Castells Through Internet we are able to distribute power of information INTERNET = Capacity for information society Knowledge upon knowledge itself to improve technology and knowledge generation = main source of productivity Space of flows repetitive exchange and interaction between physically disconnected social actors in econ, pol, and symbolic societal structures ICT = KEY to disseminating information. Networks way to think on # of different levels 3 Layers Material actual infrastructure Notes and hubs Wall street/ stock exchange How people organize space The Network Ideology three underlying assumptions o 1. Progress = digital info + ICTs o 2. THEN: Period of constraints and limits NOW: freedom, democracy and abundance o 3. Systematically harnessing info and knowledge = benefit to society world = better place, more educated = better off as whole The Knowledge Society o Theoretical knowledge now guiding principles of decision making in society not tradition, culture or guessing o Scientific knowledge, theoretical models, expert systems, institutions or educational certification We are educated to think a certain way o Difference between info and knowledge Technological Determinism o Technology drives history social arrangements determined by technological ones o We already know/believe we will eventually get to a place where our brains will just communicate directly to computers o Black box error o One single ideal perfect product o Dangers of thinking technology can have effect like a concentrated injection All sorts of configurations or properties Uses in multiple ways, not just its intended use Digital technologies have huge impact but not straight forward one Digital technologies have changed environment but important to understand its limitations Social Shaping of Technology Williams o Institutional, social, economic and cultural factors shaping: Technological advances Meaning of technological artefacts and their related use How artefacts bring about change within social groups o Determining factors: Distribution of power/capital Social and physical inheritance Relations of scale and size between groups None fully control or wholly predict outcome of complexity o Ex: Rather than study the TV, study broadcasting Hassan Four scapes o Digital Capitalism friction free capitalism o Digital Globalization convergence of ICT and neoliberal capitalism = Supercharged o Digital Acceleration acceleration of everything, info only useful for a brief moment o Digital Technology the network moving information extremely rapidly, how we think about technology and through products and services Lister o Marshall McLuhan Technological Determinism o Williams there cannot be technology on its own without humans Week 3 Power and Information Technologies Power o What enables/constrains society to do things o Not just ability to make someone do what you want them to, but its constructing meaning into the relationship framed by power embedded into societal institutions. o The way one sees power and why they do what they do. o Ex: utopian/dystopian Power essential framework to understand systems of the world o Structure Rules that govern life Predetermined institutions (government, economy, academia etc.) o Agency Socially determined capability to act and make a difference Individual choice to do what we do Freedom, free will, action, creativity, originality and possibility of change through sovereign individuals o 3 dimensions of power 1D - Behaviour in decision making blatantly observable situations 2D - Decision making and non-decision making. Current and potential issues 3D - Who/what interest is being served, overt and covert current and future Panopticon o Foucault Traditional sovereign power institutional power Scientific power peer regulated truth Related power relationships = ability to exercise power and overcome resistance Continually negotiated meanings. Ability to recode o Networking Power Binary you are IN network, or you are EXCLUDED from network o Network Power Everyone within network is benefited by cost coordination savings Everyone outside network affected by strength of network More standard the network, less likely the alternatives will be to substitute o Networked Power Interdependence between networks for sustaining power o Network Making Power Programmers: ability to constitute networks and to program/reprogram ntwks according to goals assigned to ntwks Switchers: ability to connect and ensure cooperation of diff ntwks by sharing common goals/combining resources/fending off competition
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