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CRIM 101 Final Exam Study Notes

39 Pages

Course Code
CRIM 101
Barry Cartwright

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Week 7: DOG DAYAFTERNOON Brooklyn, N.Y., Aug. 22, 1972 – based on a true story Served 20 years. Main character Sonny, Sal was crime partner, Stevie chickened out, Angie wife, Leon other partner. Sal was afraid of flying, shot at end of movie. North Country Dealt with workplace violence, gender abuse, women discrimination, etc. Worked also caused family issues at home. Connects to the 3 domains: Household, Leisure, and Workplace. Relates with sexual harassment, physical and verbal abuse at the mines, escalating problems within the household (as well as the bar and hockey arena, with her being verbally abused) Week 7 Tutorial: SO WHAT‘S ITALLMEAN?  Some crime, including armed bank robberies are not necessarily well planned.  One of the bank robbers changed his mind once robbery was underway and fed before police arrived  Robbers seriously miscalculated potential haul, expected to steal lots of money but almost all money had been picked up earlier  Miscalculated how long bank robbery would take  Didn‘t consider that someone might set off alarm, and didn‘t have a viable escape plan INGENUITY FALLACY  Sal thought Wyoming was a country. Was more worried about media calling him a homosexual than about killing the hostages or being killed  Sonny has male wife, in psychiatric ward because of way Sonny had mistreated him, and also had female wife with two children he couldn‘t support DRAMATIC FALLACY  The media dramatizes the crime, and a star was born Week 8: OPPORTUNITY & LIFESTYLE EXPOSURE THEORY ENTER THE VICTIMIZATION SURVEYS  Life-style exposure, opportunity and routine activities theory evolved in the 1970's, when victimization surveys started to gain popularity.  Victimization surveys tried to figure out who was being victimized, who was doing the victimization, what sort of victimization was involved, relationship between victim and victimizer (if any), where and when incidents took place, how often victimization occurred, etc. RISING CRIME RATES (1962 -1992 as shown in image) Also a time when crime rates were rising dramatically, an victims were demanding the government take action to protect them. SOME SUPPORTING EVIDENCE  2004 GSS found that rates of violent victimization were highest for young people from 15-24, and lowest for those over 65.  Young people more likely to engage in public activities during the evening, whereas older people are more likely to spend evenings at home (or in low risk environment). SUPPORTING EVIDENCE cont. Rates of violent victimization much higher for individuals who were single or separated/divorced, and who engages more frequently in evening activities outside the home. ROUTINE ACTIVITIES THEORY  Introduced in 1979 by Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson  Same Marcus Felson who brough us 10 Fallacies About Crime  Similar to lifestyle exposure theory – came out at roughly the same time, both based on victimization surveys  Doesn‘t talk as much about lifestyle choices as LET ROUTINEACTIVITIES THEORY cont.  Routine activities theory tried to explain why crime rates had risen so dramatically throughout the 1960‘s an 1970‘s.  Rising crime rates called into question much of prevailing wisdom concerning causes of crime  Income levels rising, unemployment falling, fewer people living below the poverty line.  Why were crime rates going up in these times of economic prosperity, instead of going down? THE THREE MAIN ELEMENTS THREE ELEMENTS NEEDED FOR DIRECT-CONTACT PREDATORY VIOLATION TO OCCUR: 1. A motivated offender 2. A suitable target 3. Absence of a capable guardian WHERE WE GO (AND HOW WE GET THERE) Home Work  Leisure WORKING ON THE CHAIN GANG  Husbands, wives, & teenagers working  Traveling to and from work  Leaving home and personal effects unprotected READING, RITING AND RITHMETIC  More people going to schools  More schools to go to  More time spent in schools SHOP‗TILYOU DROP More shopping opportunities available. Food, fashion, functional items, fun. RECREATIONALACTIVITIES ADIFFERENT OUTLOOK  Routine activities theorists, rational choice theorists and environmental criminologists all argue that crime is caused less by economic deprivation and more by economic prosperity.  In distinct contrast to Merton‘s strain theory, which said crime is caused by blocked opportunities institutionalized means in place to make this feasible.)y and advancement, without legitimate high residential density, high residential mobility, ethnic and cultural heterogeneity, poverty and broken homes. ECONOMIC PROSPERITY ADVANCES IN RAT AND VICTIMOLOGY  Cohen, Kluegel and Land‘s work on social inequality and victimization  Miethe and Meier's structural choice model of victimization  Marcus Felson's concept of the metroreef SOCIAL INEQUALITYAND VICTIMIZATION  Cohen, Kluegel & Land (1981) agree that target attractiveness and presence (or absence of a capable guardian) are contributing factors in the criminal event.  Also argue that most property crime is motivated by desire for economic gain – not simply because of thrill/risk-taking element involved, or because opportunity presents itself. SOCIAL INEQUALITYAND VICTIMIZATION cont.  Suggest that income levels have a measurable effect on crime rates  Unemployed or lower income individuals living in urban centers at greater risk of victimization  Higher income individuals able to avoid victimization by reducing exposure to offenders through enhanced guardianship measures THE STRUCTURAL CHOICE MODEL OF VICTIMIZATION  Miethe & Meier‘s structural choice model of victimization builds upon Cohen, Kluegel, & Land‘s work.  Acknowledges impact of socio-economic inequality in shaping the criminal event  Structural model also attempts to explain criminal event on ―macro‖ (larger) scale, by integrating a number of different theoretical perspectives. A STRUCTURAL (MACRO) MODEL OF THE CRIMINAL EVENT Theoretical Examples Components of CEP Dependant Variable Learning Theory, Rational Choice Offenders  Theory, Control Theory ----- Routine Activities, Lifestyle TheorVictims  Criminal Act ----- Strain Theory, time & place, interpret tation of crime, neighborhood, oppoSocial Context  MARCUS FELSON‘S METROREEF  ―Divergent metropolis", or ―metroreef‖  Refers to metropolitan areas that sprawl into seemingly endless suburbs THE FOUR MAIN FEATURES OF THE METROREEF  DISPERSION OF CONSTRUCTION—more single family homes, low rise buildings on large lots, areas with large parking lots  PROLIFERATING HOUSEHOLDS—more elderly people living on their own, more young people moving out and setting up own households  SPREADING OF PEOPLE OVER MANY VEHICLES—more people have their own cars  DISPERSING ACTIVITIES AWAY FROM HOME—people go further to shop, work, play THE METROREEF Example of metroreef is the lower mainland cities. Surrey, Vancouver, Burnaby, Richmond, all connected CRIMESAS INTERACTIONS  Crime is a "joint product"—offenders and victims interact with each other and have influence on what other party to interaction does or doesn‘t do.  Certain actions may produce certain reactions, which can lead to an escalation in the criminal event CRIMINAL HOMICIDE AS A SITUATED TRANSACTION  1977 study of ―Criminal Homicide as a Situated Transaction‖ by David Luckenbill  Examined 71 murders that occurred in California county between 1963 & 1972  All these situated transactions occurred outside of work environment, mostly during evenings and/or weekends PERMISSIVE ENVIRONS  Took place in what might be described as "permissive or "informal" environments. Eg. At parties, street corners, bars, or at home.  Driving force behind the transactions described by Luckenbill was ―loss of face‖, real or imagined THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF CRIME & DEVIANCE  1994 book Organizing Deviance by Best & Luckenbil  Examines the network of social relations between individuals, and transactions that occur within these networks  Transactions may last for only a few seconds (a robbery or mugging) or days (blackmail, internet fraud)  May be conducted though face-to-face contact, or over distances BEST & LUCKENBILL‘S THREE TYPES OF DEVIANT TRANSACTIONS  INDIVIDUAL DEVIANCE = a transaction that can be accomplished by a single person taking illegal drugs, committing suicide, or killing an unwanted fetus.  DEVIANT EXCHANGE = a transaction in which two or more individuals voluntarily exchange illicit goods or services (eg. Buying and selling illegal drugs or child porn)  DEVIANT EXPLOITATION = an illicit transaction in which a deviant uses stealth, trickery, or physical force to compel other person to surrender goods or services (eg. Credit card fraud, shoplifting, armed robbery) Week 8 Tutorial: RATIONALCHOICE & SITUATIONALCRIME PREVENTION Rational Choice Theory  Routine Activities Theory  SITUATIONAL CRIME PREVENTION Lifestyle Exposure Theory  Environmental Criminology  SITUATIONALCRIME PREVENTION Branding of cattle (identifying property) Speed bumps and traffic calming measures (reducing joyriding) GPS tracking (reducing car theft) Separate washrooms for men/women (deflecting potential sex offenders) CRIME OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURE Victims (women alone, drunks, strangers) Targets (cars, banks, convenience stores, etc) Crime Facilitators (guns, cars, drugs, alcohol) Week 9: VICTIMS OFVIOLENCE One of main ways we find out about cost of crime is through victimization surveys According to the GSS, 25% of all violent incidents resulted in some form of physical injury Only about 10% of victims of violence sought medical care for injuries HOUSEHOLD VICTIMIZATION Includes break and enter, theft of household property, automobile theft, etc. 63% of all reported losses were less than $500 per incident 42% were less than $100 after insurance company compensation THEFT OF PERSONALPROPERTY Having credit cards, money or jewellery stolen while in shopping malls, commercial buildings, etc. 42% involved out-of-pocket expenses of less than $100 EMOTIONALAND BEHAVIOURAL CONSEQUENCES GSS reports that overwhelming majority of people in Canada (94%) feel safe from crime Majority of Canadians (59%) feel their neighbourhood is safer than other neighborhoods REACTIONS TO VIOLENT CRIME Angry (main reaction), Not Much (26%), Upset/Frustrated (20%), Fearful (18%), Shock (12%), Victimized (6%), Anxiety (4%) AGE DIFFERENCES Violent victimization rates lowest for people over age of 65, and highest for those between ages 15-24 Older people continue to express concerns about their personal safety Might be caused by tendency to regard themselves as being weaker than typical offender, and hence more vulnerable AGE DIFFERENCES cont. Media images of older people being preyed upon by younger, stronger people (who are seemingly ruthless and eager to take advantage of them) may contribute to this fear THE URBAN-RURALDIVIDE Safe (homes in rural areas) / Unsafe (urban area places. Ex. Areas with more graffiti) WHYTHE DIFFERENCE? More likely to encounter strangers from different cultural or social backgrounds More likely to encounter physical incivilities (eg. Broken windows, graffiti, run-down buildings, etc) WHYTHE DIFFERENCE? cont. More likely to encounter social incivilities (eg. Drug and alcohol use in public places, panhandlers and squeegee kids on street corners, etc.) with high numbers of rental units and a high turnover in population areas, especially in those urban areas LABELLINGAND SOCIALSTIGMA  Labelling theory addresses the issue of what happens to offenders if they are apprehended and punished in the aftermath of a criminal event  Advances an explanation for why certain individuals engage in ongoing criminal activity THE SOCIALREACTION TO DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR From perspective of labelling theory, once a label – eg. ―juvenile delinquent‖, ―criminal‖, or ―convict‖ is affixed, it‘s hard to get rid of it Offenders might start to view themselves in accordance with label they‘ve been given MORALENTREPRENEURS Also known as moral crusaders or claimsmakers Individuals or groups who have the power to create and/or enforce social norms Includes lobbyists, pressure groups, professionals, specialists, and even government officials or agencies AMPLIFYING THE PROBLEM Before After (take something that wasn’t important before and bring it to light) ENTER THE MUGGER 1978 book Policing The Crisis by Hall et. al Between Aug 1972-Aug 1973, ―mugging‖ attracted massive attention from the media, politicians, interest groups, and various representatives of British criminal justice system Sudden interest sparked by robbery in which an elderly man was stabbed to death, leading to public outcry, demands for stiffer sentencing, and war on violent crime EXIT THE MUGGER Interest in the subject of mugging waned after about a year Never clear whether there was actual increase in violent crime during the time period Never clear whether "mugging" was any different from what had been previously referred to as ―robbery‖ SPOUSALVIOLENCE Rates of spousal violence relatively stable between 1999 GSS, 2004 GSS, 2009 GSS Men and women report similar amounts of spousal violence Women much more likely to be choked, beaten or threatened with a weapon, men are more likely to be slapped, kicked, shoved, and hit LEADING TO INJURY  Women more likely to sustain physical injuries as consequence of violence (44% of women, compared to 19% of men)  Women more likely to seek medical care for injuries (13% of women, 2% of men) LEADING TO INJURY cont. Next most common injuries: Most sustained bruising (92%), next cuts (40%) Women more likely to sustain bruises, men more likely cuts Week 9 Tutorial: SOMETHING WORKS Cullen et. Al say it‘s true that half the studies showed negligible or even negative results Even so, average size effect of recidivism was still r = .10 Martinson and Wilks failed to distinguish between programs or to specifically examine cognitive behavioral programs Cognitive behavioral programs achieved 20-30% reductions in recidivism (r = .20 or .30) AND CONCLUSION IS… Overall, correctional research provides strong and consistent support for social learning theory and cognitive behavioral programs Also confirms criminality is not stable over the life course Criminal behavior can be altered or ―unlearned‖ through reinforcement, punishment, targeting, anti-social values, and criminal rationalizations and isolating or insulating criminals from pro-criminal associations FAMILYVIOLENCE GENDER ISSUES Females are more likely than males to be designated as the perpetrator in official reports of child maltreatment / neglect Not necessarily because females were actual perpetrators, but because ―cultural and societal views hold mothers responsible for welfare of their children‖ Mothers ―sometimes cited as maltreaters in official reports of child sexual abuse because child protective workers often assume mothers have responsibility to protect children from sexual abuse THE ―PROBLEM‖ WITH PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES Psychological explanations of family violence tend to overlook or minimize the influence of social and structural factors Individual explanation – offender is usually stereotyped as ―mentally disturbed‖ or as a ―sick person‖ Victims usually portrayed as innocent and defenseless Only 10% of incidents are clearly ―caused by mental illness‖ SOCIOLOGICALEXPLANATIONS Look at effects of age, gender, race, and social class Look at structure of the family, and treat the family as a social institution Recognize that family violence has multiple causes (including issues of mental illness and structured gender inequality) Week 10: THE FAMILYAND THE HOUSEHOLD SEXUAL ASSAULTS AGAINST CHILDREN One-third of sexual assaults committed by family members Half of sexual assaults committed by family members when victim is under age of six, slightly less than half when the victim is between the ages of 6 and 10 In most cases, offender in family-related sexual assaults is male relatives; over 1/3 it‘s father, slightly less than 1/3 are brothers, rest are other male relatives ABDUCTIONS OF CHILDREN More than two-thirds of all abductions are parental abductions Distribution of offenders is evenly split between fathers and mothers THE PRECURSORS In most cases of physical assault and homicide against children and youth, main contributing factor (or precursor) is either frustration or an argument Young children and female children/ youth more likely to be assaulted or killed in private dwelling (usually own home) other public places11 more likely to be assaulted on streets, school, parking lots, or THE PRECURSORS cont. In the case of younger children, it may be difficult for them to leave an abusive environment, thus explaining their increased risk of victimization in their own home THE CONSEQUENCES (AFTERMATH) In both physical and sexual assaults, almost half of children and youth did not sustain injuries of any kind If they are injured, most involve minor injuries that don‘t require medical treatment Only 2% of females and 1% of males sustain serious injuries THE CONSEQUENCES (AFTERMATH) cont. Long-term consequences of family related-violence against children and youth should not be underestimated Abused children and youth more likely to be aggressive, abusive toward future spouses/children, and to suffer from other emotional problems Children/youth who have been victims of family-related violence or witnessed it are more likely to engage in violent criminal activity when older CRIMES AGAINST THE HOUSEHOLD RISK FACTORS FOR CRIMES AGAINST THE HOUSEHOLD Risk of household victimization considerably higher in urban areas than rural areas Risk of household victimization higher amongst those who have lived in dwelling for under one year Risk of household victimization higher amongst those who rent their dwelling, who live in duplexes, row houses, or semi-detached houses SOCIALDISORGANIZATION HIGH INCOME HOUSEHOLDS Sacco and Kennedy say that there is no clear-cut relationship between household income and the risk of household victimization According to most recent GSS, however, households with annual incomes of $60,000 or higher, households with annual incomes of $60,000+ had highest rates of victimization – 17% higher than middle income houses, 88% higher than low- income households. SEARCHING FOR TARGETS According to Brantinghams‘ environmental criminology, offenders are unlikely to explore distant, unknown areas in search of suitable targets Offenders most likely to search for targets that fall within their normal activity space (ie. where they conduct normal, day to day, activities) SEARCHING FOR TARGETS cont.  Offenders prefer targets close to their own homes because of time and difficulty involved in traveling long distances and dangers of entering unknown territory  Households most susceptible to victimization are those that offer the offender easiest access and lowest risk of detection/apprehension  Prefer corner dwellings on (or close to) major transportation routes, especially hidden or partially hidden dwellings with little to no surveillance LEISURE ACTIVITIES AND CRIME LEISURE DEFINED  S & K define leisure as free time or spare time that is used specifically for recreation or play  Activities that people voluntarily choose to engage in because they are a source of satisfaction or pleasure WHO HAS THE TIME?  Teenagers have more leisure time than married couples who are raising family, or people working full time  Some forms of teen offending are also forms of leisure, eg. Painting graffiti or joyriding in a stolen car  Even when not forms of offending, leisure-time activities often take them to venues where there is lots of crime and v
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