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CRIM 101 (72)

These notes cover everything up to the first midterm Chapters 1-6

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CRIM 101
Sheri Fabian

What is Criminology? Examines crime as a social phenomenon Includes: o Making laws o Breaking laws o Reacting to breaking laws Scientific study of human behaviour, crime causation, crime prevention, and punishment and rehabilitation of offenders Our definition of criminology Interdisciplinary profession built around scientific study of crime and criminal behaviour o Includes form, causes, legal aspects, and control The primary criminological specialties/approaches Sociology Psychology Biology Economics Geography/environment Political science Law Objectives of criminology To develop body of general and verified principles regarding processes of law, crime and treatment Primary focus on causes of crime and criminality Components of discipline of criminology Six main areas o Defining crime and criminals o Origins and role of law o Social distribution of crime o Causes of crime o Patterns of criminal behaviour o Societal reactions to crime Why do we need to study crime? To better understand out social lives o Both criminal behaviours and societys responses to these behaviours If we understand crime, we are better equipped to prevent it Know how to allocate resources Crime affects everyone Things to know from chapter 1 Define criminology What criminologists study The role or rules How rules become formal laws How we define crime Differences between crime and deviance Meaning of crime is socially defined How crime changes over time 3 theoretical perspectives of criminology 2 perspectives of crime causation What is crime? An act that violates criminal law and is punishable by sanctions What is deviance? o Behaviour that violates social norms Continuum of crime and deviance Three main forms of law Civil law o Regulates arrangements between individuals Criminal law o Regulates actions with potential to harm state interests Administrative law o Regulates daily business activities Criminal Law Body of jurisprudence that o defines crimes o specifies penalties o provides general principles regarding criminal responsibility o provides defences to criminal charges Types of criminal laws Indictable offences Summary conviction offences (max 6 months) Super summary conviction offence (max 18 months) Hybrid offences (Crown chooses to proceed as summary conviction or indictment) Sources of criminal law Federal legislation o Criminal Code and other federal statutes Quasi-criminal law o Regulatory offense (ex. Driving offences) Common law o Judge-made law/case law The Charter of Rights and Freedoms Emphasizes individual rights o State should not abuse its power or its citizens o Judicial power to invalidate law that unjustifiable infringes protected rights of individuals Limits to legalistic approach to law Misses social, moral, and individual significance of immoral behaviour Role of power o Those in power create, enforce, and determine what is prohibited by law Formalized laws fairly recent development Role of rules in society Identify behaviours against the law Exemplify social norms Allows responses to those who break rules Continuum of crime and deviance Where fits continuum based on o Severity of societal response
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