CRIM 101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Forensic Psychiatry, Biology Of Depression, Environmental Crime

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Published on 16 May 2011
School
Simon Fraser University
Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 101
Professor
Early Biological Theories
Criminal anthropology
oRelationship between human physical characteristics and criminality
Phrenology –Gall (1758-1828)
oSkull shape predicts criminality
oPersonality roots in brain
oScience and systematic evaluation
The Positive School
Application of scientific techniques to the study of crime and criminals
Humans adapt behaviours and social institutions
oTo fulfill destinies
Evolution
Criminals were seen as savages/primitive –biology is destiny
Statistics
Nature vs. Nurture
Nature
oEarly positive school
oBehaviour is caused by genetic influences
oIndividuals have inherited predispositions
Nurture
oDurkheim; Chicago School
oHumans are born without predispositions
oEnvironmental influences (such as family, peers, education,)
Free will vs. Determinism
Free will
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oClassical school
oAssumes that people have the ability to make rational choices
Determinism
oPositive School
oHumans as animals with preconditioned instincts
Conditional free will
Effects are rarely attribute to single cause
People choose courses of action
These choices are limited by
oCurrent circumstances or opportunities, learning experiencing, physiological abilities,
and genetic predispositions (Fishbein, 1990)
Early Positivists
*Lombroso (1876)
oFather of Criminology
oDeveloped Atavism
Criminals were less evolved than everyone else
Hypotheses –bodily features predict criminal behaviour
oLack of evidence to support this hypothesis
oLegacy –Applied scientific approach to causes of crime
o*What was Lombrosos contribution to Criminology?
He applied the scientific method to crime causation.
Ferri
oPhysical characteristics
oAnthropological
oSocial
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Hooton & Sheldon
oBody types and personality were linked
Chemicals, Environment, & Hormones
Linked to violent behaviour
oChemical imbalance in the body was a cause of criminality
oAllergic reactions
oFood additives
oPollution
Twinkie defence
Testosterone and aggression are linked
PMS
Genetics & Criminality
Criminal families
oEugenics (only allowing people with desirable genetic characteristics to have children)
XYY Supermale
oExtra male chromosome
Chromosomes
oSeeking gene linked to criminality
Twin & adoption studies
oMinimal evidence to support
Male-Female differences
Socio-biology
oThe systematic study of biological basis of social behaviour
Crime and Human Nature
Wilson & Herrnstein
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Document Summary

Early biological theories: criminal anthropology, relationship between human physical characteristics and criminality. Phrenology gall (1758-1828: skull shape predicts criminality, personality roots in brain, science and systematic evaluation. The positive school: application of scientific techniques to the study of crime and criminals, humans adapt behaviours and social institutions, to fulfill destinies, evolution, criminals were seen as savages/primitive biology is destiny. Nature vs. nurture: nature, early positive school, behaviour is caused by genetic influences, individuals have inherited predispositions, nurture, durkheim; chicago school, humans are born without predispositions, environmental influences (such as family, peers, education,) Free will www. notesolution. com: classical school, assumes that people have the ability to make rational choices, determinism, positive school, humans as animals with preconditioned instincts. Conditional free will: effects are rarely attribute to single cause. People choose courses of action: these choices are limited by, current circumstances or opportunities, learning experiencing, physiological abilities, and genetic predispositions (fishbein, 1990) *lombroso (1876: father of criminology, developed atavism.