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CRIM 101 (72)

These notes cover all 6 weeks after the second midterm

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CRIM 101
Sheri Fabian

Early Biological Theories Criminal anthropology o Relationship between human physical characteristics and criminality Phrenology Gall (1758-1828) o Skull shape predicts criminality o Personality roots in brain o Science and systematic evaluation The Positive School Application of scientific techniques to the study of crime and criminals Humans adapt behaviours and social institutions o To fulfill destinies Evolution Criminals were seen as savages/primitive biology is destiny Statistics Nature vs. Nurture Nature o Early positive school o Behaviour is caused by genetic influences o Individuals have inherited predispositions Nurture o Durkheim; Chicago School o Humans are born without predispositions o Environmental influences (such as family, peers, education,) Free will vs. Determinism Free will o Classical school o Assumes that people have the ability to make rational choices Determinism o Positive School o Humans as animals with preconditioned instincts Conditional free will Effects are rarely attribute to single cause People choose courses of action These choices are limited by o Current circumstances or opportunities, learning experiencing, physiological abilities, and genetic predispositions (Fishbein, 1990) Early Positivists *Lombroso (1876) o Father of Criminology o Developed Atavism Criminals were less evolved than everyone else Hypotheses bodily features predict criminal behaviour o Lack of evidence to support this hypothesis o Legacy Applied scientific approach to causes of crime o *What was Lombrosos contribution to Criminology? He applied the scientific method to crime causation. Ferri o Physical characteristics o Anthropological o Social Hooton & Sheldon o Body types and personality were linked Chemicals, Environment, & Hormones Linked to violent behaviour o Chemical imbalance in the body was a cause of criminality o Allergic reactions o Food additives o Pollution Twinkie defence Testosterone and aggression are linked PMS Genetics & Criminality Criminal families o Eugenics (only allowing people with desirable genetic characteristics to have children) XYY Supermale o Extra male chromosome Chromosomes o Seeking gene linked to criminality Twin & adoption studies o Minimal evidence to support Male-Female differences Socio-biology o The systematic study of biological basis of social behaviour Crime and Human Nature Wilson & Herrnstein Constitutional factors & crime o Gender o Age o Body type o Intelligence o Personality Crime causation links o Heredity, biology, social environment Policy issues and Critiques Biology & crime many issues o Abortion o Capital punishment o Sterilization Most studies are poorly designed and have ambiguous results Cant ignore but proceed with caution Psychology and Psychiatry Psychological perspective o Behavioural conditioning o Personality disturbances o Psychopathology Psychiatric Perspective o Forensic psychiatry Personality drives and motivates determine behaviour Biology and psychology mediated through consciousness Genetic (Innate) vs. Learned Behaviours
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