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Final

Final Crim Review.docx

16 Pages
478 Views

Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 101
Professor
Barry Cartwright

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Description
Rising Crime RatesAlso a time when crime rates were rising dramatically and victims were demanding the government take action to protect them Some Supporting Evidence2004 GSS found that rates of violent victimization were highest for young people between 15 to 24 and lowest for those over age of 65Rates of violent victimization much higher for individuals who were single or separateddivorced and who engaged more frequently in evening activities outside of home Routine Activities TheoryIntroduced in 1979 by Lawrence Cohen and Marcus FelsonSame Marcus Felson who wrote Ten Fallacies of CrimeSimilar to lifestyle exposure theorycame out at roughly the same time both based on victimization surveysRoutine activities theory tried to explain why crime rates had risen so dramatically throughout the 1960s and 1970sRising crime rates called into question much of prevailing wisdom concerning causes of crimeIncome levels rising unemployment falling fewer people living below the poverty lineWhy were crime rates going up in times of economic prosperity instead of going down The Three Main ElementsMotivated offenderSuitable targetAbsence of a capable guardian Working On the Chain GangHusbands wives and teenagers workingTraveling to and from workLeaving home and personal effects unprotected Reading Writing and ArithmeticMore people going to schoolsMore schools to go toMore time spent in schools Shop Till You DropFoodFashionFunctional itemsFun A Different OutlookRoutine activities theorists ration choice theorists and environmental criminologists all argue that crime is caused less by economic deprivation and more by economic prosperityIn distinct contrast to Mertons strain theory which said crime is caused by blocked opportunities striving to attain culturally valued goals of prosperity and advancement without legitimate institutionalized means in place to make it feasibleIn distinct contrast to Shaw and McKays social disorganization theory which put crime down to high residential density high residential mobility ethnic and cultural heterogeneity poverty and broken homes Advances in RAT and VictimologyCohen Kluegel and Lands work on social inequality and victimizationMiethe and Meiers structural choice model of victimizationMarcus Felsons concept of metroreef Social Inequality and VictimizationCohen Kluegel and Land 1981 agree that target attractiveness and the presence or absence of a capable guardian are contributing factors in the criminal eventAlso argue that most property crime is motivated by desire for economic gainnot simply because of the thrill or risktaking element involved or because the opportunity presents itselfSuggest that income levels have a measurable effect on crime ratesUnemployed or lower income individuals living in urban centers at greater risk of victimizationHigher income individuals able to avoid victimization by reducing their exposure to offenders through enhanced guardianshipmeasures The Structural Choice Model of VictimizationMiethe and Meiers structural choice model of victimization builds upon Cohen Kluegel and Lands WorkAcknowledges impact of socioeconomic inequality in shaping the criminal eventStructural model also attempts to explain criminal event on macro larger scale by integrating number of different theoretical perspectives Structural Macro Model of the Criminal EventTheoretical ExamplesComponents of CEPDependent VariableLearning theoryOffendersCriminal act control theory rational choiceRoutine activitiesVictimsCriminal act theory
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