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Crim midterm #2 (ch 4-6) .docx

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CRIM 101
Jay Healey

Crim midterm #2 review Ch5: Offend and Social Control theories - Motivational Theories o The wish/desire to offend/ commit a crime is what separates offenders from non- offenders, suggesting that non-offenders don’t have the desire at all. Critics to this theory say that its more about the ability or willing to actually act on this desire. This relates to the reason why investogators always look for the initial motivation of the offender to solve crimes - Informal Social Controls o Social controls are methods used to conform people into the approved behaviours of society. Relationships with people who support and promote these conformities have relate to if the values are internalized. These people are often teachers, parents, and peers. - Containment theory o These relate to the many facors that can “push” or “pull” crime. This theory is by Walter Reckless, 1967. There are two types of containments. Firstly, Inner containments relate to socialization and a good self-concept (views self positively). This also relates to the psychic make up of the individual – of self concept is “good”, then the individual can tolerate frusteration, practice strong responsibility, and set clear future goals. He believes that this is the more important control of the two. Secondly, outer containments, which are primary groups that set standards for this behaviour. This is mainly in the family setting, where the individual feels a sense of belonging and standards are set. - Theory of the Bond o By Travis Hirschi, 1969. Criminal activity is a result of someone having weakened ties to conform to society. Weakness of social bond results in narrow self-interest, triggers lying, cheating, and stealing. There are usually 4 strands of these societal bonds  Commitment: family, career, success, future goals. Ex. The time and energy spent in conventional activities like studying (to obtain good grades and thus be successful). If more time is invested in this, there is vitually no time to be delinquent.  Involvement: school activities, sports teams, community organizations, religious groups social clubs. = participation in the conforming world. Because other wise, “idle hands are the devil’s workshop”  Belief: honesty, morality, fairness, patriotism, responsibility are conformist values. Delinquents usually don’t value these aspects.  Attachment: to family, friends, the community – how sensitive children are to expectations of parents and teachers effects their morals. If it is important to them, theey are less likely to be delinquent (as this behaviour is dispointing) o We can explain as to why some youth are delinquent while others are not by looking for a weakening in these bonds. - General The
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