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Study Guide

CRIM 103- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 50 pages long!)


Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 103
Professor
Jennifer Wong
Study Guide
Final

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SFU
CRIM 103
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Lecture 2
Poverty influences parent behavior
Adds additional stress
o Parents working 2 jobs
May reduce nurturing and consistent parenting
o Aggressive discipline
Association with delinquent peers
Peers influence social/emotional development
Delinquency predicted by delinquency of friends
Act in groups (particularly for non-violent crimes eg. robbery)
3 perspectives on influence of peers
Direct result of association with deviant peers
Deviant youths seek similar peersbirds of a feather flock together
Deviant youth drawn to deviant peers; amplifies already existing tendencies
o Most currently supported perspective
Peer rejection
Peer acceptance important for social/psych development
Dodge & Pettit (2003)
o Children rejected for 2+ years by grade 2
o In adolescence, 50% antisocial vs. 9% for non-neglected children
Risk factors for peer rejection
Low quality parent-child relation
Low quality parent-parent relation
Aggressive behavior
Impulsive and disrupted behavior
Easily angered
Lack social and interpersonal skills
Shy and socially withdrawn
Negative preschool experiences
Low quality child-care
o Indirect relationship: children at risk for poor language, cognitive
skills, social/emotional development
High quality preschool programs
o Help protect at-risk children
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o Long-term benefits
Low quality after-school care
Including unsupervised after-school care
After-school programs range widely in benefits
o Some have negative effects
Academic failure
Early school failure = double rate of delinquency
75% of state prison inmates did not complete high school
Reading achievement particularly important
Lack of bonding to school; truancy
PARENTAL AND FAMILY RISK FACTORS
Single-parent households
Related to delinquency
Most important = stable, secure, supportive home environment
Positive effects of parent-child relation in 2-parent family are stronger than
in single parent families
Parental practices and styles
Parental practices: strategies to affect particular aspect of child
Parental styles: attitudes towards child, emotional climate
o Gestures, expressions
Disciplinary techniques
Hoffman (1977): categorized content, style, consistency
o Power assertion
o Love withdrawal
o Induction
Power assertion most closely associated with delinquency
Baumrind’s 4 parenting styles
Authoritarian the bad one
Permissive tolerant, non-punitive attitude, avoid making restrictions
Neglectful do not adequately support the needs of their child, uninvolved
(most associated with delinquency)
Authoritative the chill one
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