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Chapter 7-12

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Department
Criminology
Course
CRIM 103
Professor
Jay Healey
Semester
Spring

Description
-criminal psychopaths frequently engage in "violence" as forms of REVENGE/RETRIBUTION or during Chapter 7 - Criminal Psychopathy a period of "drinking" History of Psychopathy Psychological Measures of Psychopathy -originated by Theophrastus →1801: Pinel - insane without delirium Psychopathy Checklist (PCL) - 22 items and its revision PCL-R (second edition has been expanded for →1900: Henry Maudsley - moral imbecile and cannot be rehabilitated the use of offenders in other countries and includes "updated normative + validated" data on male/female →1941: Hervey Cleckley - most influential clinical descriptions of psychopathy offenders -based on Cleckley's conception of psychopathy designed specifically to identify psychopaths in male Psychopath - someone who shows a cluster of "psychological, interpersonal, and neurological" features prison/forensic/psychiatric populations that distinguishes them from the general population →PCL-R - assesses the emotional/interpersonal/behavioural/social deviant facets of criminal →Robert Hare proposed 3 categories of Psychopaths psychopathy from various sources (self-reports, behavioural observations, families, friends...) • includes data about behaviour (ex. school, home, work, leisure) 1. Primary Psychopath (TRUE PSYCHOPATH) - has certain psychological, emotional, cognitive, and biological differences that distinguish them from "general/criminal population" • 20 questions on a 3 point scale (0,1,2) (outgoing, charming, verbally-manipulative, not explosive/violent or destructive) → 0 - consistently absent (doesn't apply to individual) → 1 - inconsistent (can apply to individual but too many exceptions) 2. Secondary Psychopath (NEUROTICS) - commit anti-social/violent acts because of severe emotional → 2 - consistently present problems or inner conflicts -a score ABOVE 30 qualifies individual as a PRIMARY PSYCHOPATH -show more "emotional instability" and impulsivity (more aggressive and violent) Advantages of PCL-R 3. Dyssocial Psychopath - show aggressive, anti-social behaviour they have "learned" from subculture • can distinguish criminal psychopaths from non-criminal psychopaths (families and gangs) • help correctional and forensic psychologists involved in "risk assessments" of Anti-Social Personality Disorder (APD) - pattern of "disregard for/violation of" the RIGHTS OF offenders OTHERS • provides a "universal measurement" for psychopathy assessment →Characteristics: failure to conform to social norms, irritability, disregard for safety, irresponsibility, lack of remorse, impulsivity/failure to plan ahead P-Scan - screening instrument that serves as a "rough screen" for psychopathic features and a source of "working hypothesis" to deal with "managing suspects/offenders/clients Anti-Social Personalities (ASP) - people who "fail to conform" to social norms with respect to "lawful ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- behaviours" (may REPEATEDLY perform acts that are GROUNDS FORARREST) ICD -10 - Dyssocial Personality Disorder - psychopathy/sociopathy/ASP/asocial personality/amoral ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------personality------------ Criminal Psychopath - primary psychopaths who engage in REPETITIVE anti-social/criminal DSM-IV - Anti-Social Personality Disorder - psychopathy/sociopathy/ASP behaviour (may not be violent) → superficial charm, and "average-above average intelligence" (verbally skilful and score higher on Core Factors of Psychopathy intelligence tests than the general population) FactorAnalysis - statistical procedure designed to find "different factors" in test data Characteristics: dominant, manipulative individuals who are IMPULSIVE, RISK-TAKING, and ANTI-SOCIAL 1. 2 - Factor Position - Factor 1 - interpersonal and emotional components of a disorder and has items measuring: remorselessness, callousness, and selfish use of manipulation -Contemporary Theory and Research consider "psychopathic traits" as existing on a "continuum" - Factor 2 - closely associated with a "socially deviant/antisocial" lifestyle - poor (some show more psychopathic traits than others) planning, impulsiveness, excessive need for stimulation, lack of realistic goals Offending Patterns 2. 3 - Factor Position - Dimension 1 (Impression Management) - arrogant and deceptive interpersonal style: overdramatic sense of "self-worth", superficial charm, lying, manipulation, and deceitfulness -lack a "normal sense" of ethics and morality - LIVE BY THEIR OWN RULES and are cold-blooded - Dimension 2 - deficient emotional experience characterized by: low remorse, low -use violence and intimidation to satisfy their needs and wants guilt, weak conscience, absence of anxiety, fearlessness, little empathy, and failure to accept responsibil. (psychopathic sex offenders are "more motivated" by THRILL-SEEKING and EXCITEMENT than sexual arousal 3. 4 - Factor Position - based on findings that individuals that have psychopathic traits often show violence and other anti-social behavioural patterns that are MORE than poor planning and impulsivity • Factor 1 - INTERPERSONAL - pathological lying and conning 1. Genetic Factors • Factor 2 - IMPULSIVE LIFESTYLE - irresponsible behaviour, -evidence that "temperament" may be linked to "low arousal" and "fear responses" associated with stimulation seeking, and impulsiveness psychopathy (MAY DISRUPT FORMATION OF "GUILT, CONSCIENCE, CONCERN FOR • Factor 3 - EMOTIONAL - lack of remorse for actions PUNISHMENT) • Factor 4 - ANTI-SOCIALTENDENCIES - poor self-regulation and 2. Neuropsychology and Psychopathy variety of anti-social behaviour and persistent criminal activity -Neuropsychological Indicators: electrodermal, cardiovascular, and other nervous system measures Recidivism -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Neurophysiological Concepts and Terminology -the tendency to RETURN to criminal offending: recidivism rates of psychopaths are VERY HIGH (reoffend faster, violate parole sooner, and commit more institutional violence) → HIGH SCORES on the PCL-R are PREDICTORS of "violent recidivism" -Nervous system is divided into 2 parts: STRUCTURE and FUNCTION (Central Nervous System + Peripheral Nervous System) Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System Female Psychopath Brain and Spinal Cord Made up of all the nerve cells (neurons) 10-15% of prison population are "female" - women consistently score LOWER on PCL-R than males and nerve pathways located outside CNS -female psychopaths may show "different behavioural patterns" • lack realistic long-term goals Processes info and "relays" the Bring outside info to the CNS (can only • show greater tendency to be sexually promiscuous interpretation back to PNS "transmit" • less aggressive and violence - may begin violent career later than males Interpretation, thoughts, memories, and Involves the Somatic Nervous System • may recidivate less images occur in Cerebral Cortex that contains theAutonomic System ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Juvenile Psychopathy -there's evidence that male criminal psychopaths begin their offending patterns at VERY EARLYAGE Cerebral Cortex - processing center for STIMULATION and SENSATION received from the -teens are usually "callous, narcissistic, impulsive, and engage in sensation-seeking behaviours outside world and body VIAthe PNS -psychopathic-like traits may be INDICATION of "sexual and physical" abuse Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System (children from abusive homes often show "abnormally" restricted range of emotions SIMILAR to emotional traits of psychopathy) Activates for EMERGENCIES Relaxes and DeactivatesAFTER Emergencies -some children may appear psychopathic by way of : poor anger control, poor judgement, and lack of goals (can be because of "Conduct Disorder" or an "Oppositional Defiance Disorder") Hemisphere Asymmetry and Deficiency Measures of Juvenile Psychopathy -Psychopathy Screening Device (PSD) / Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) / Psychopathy Right Hemisphere Left Hemisphere Both Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) Specializes in NON-VERBAL Specializes in VERBAL 2 hemispheres must have Functions Functions a "balance" of contribution Problems with Juvenile Delinquency -juvenile psychopaths are "unlikely" to give ACCURATE/HONEST self-reports about their emotions/thoughts/behaviour for normal judgement/ →need to rely on interviews, self-reports, and information from relatives) appropriate self control/ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Biological Factors of Psychopathy and regulation of emotion -contemporary research favours view that "psychopathic behaviour" results from COMPLEX Processes info holistically + Processes info analytically + INTERACTIONS between "neuropsychological" and "learning/socialization" factors and more globally in more sequential way Amygdala - cluster of neurons responsible for "emotions" (fear, anger, and disgust) Important in understanding Closely tied to -involved in LEARNING and SHORT-TERM memory especially if it involves "high emotions" -psychopaths shows "lower amygdala activity" during an "emotional processing task" and communication of "self-inhibiting" processes ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- emotion Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) Somatic Division - made up of MOTOR NERVES that supply muscles with nerves for "body More spontaneous and movement" impulsive Autonomic Division - controls "heart rate, gland secretion, and smooth muscle activity" -activates emotional behaviour and responsivity to stress and tension -Hare hypothesizes that criminal psychopaths have an ABNORMAL BALANCE between the 2 Sympathetic System hemispheres = Hemisphere Asymmetry -responsible for "activating/arousing" the individual for FIGHT-OR-FLIGHT before or during Criminal Psychopath Characteristics emergencies -are INCONSTISTENT with their "verbalized thoughts/feelings/intentions Skin Conductance Response (SDR) - MOST COMMON physiological indicator of emotional arousal -their LEFT HEMISPHERE seems "deficient" in linguistic processing because they DON'T RELY on verbal, sequential operations = rely more on RIGHT HEMISPHERE(measure of the RESISTANCE of the skin to "conducting electrical" current) -less accurate with "reading emotional expressions" Perspiration - corresponds closely to CHANGES in EMOTIONAL STATES = highly sensitive indicator of "slight changes" in the autonomic nervous system Emotional Paradox - psychopaths show "normal judgement" of emotional cues and situations but are SHITTY at using those emotional cues to GUIDE their judgements EMOTIONALAROUSAL INCREASES = PERSPIRATION RATE INCREASES (can TALK about emotional cues but LACK ABILITY to use them effectively in real world) -deficits in "measures of skin conductance" (CD) arousal = associated with LOWAUTONOMIC ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Frontal Neuropsychology • low emotionality • poor conductibility -studies suggest that psychopaths MAY SUFFER from "frontal lobe damage/dysfunctions" • lack of empathy and remorse • ability to lie easily Frontal Lobe - section of the Cerebral Cortex believed to be responsible for HIGHER LEVEL cognitive functions of "decision-making/cognitive flexibility/foresight/impulse-regulation/control of appropriate behaviour -Lykken hypothesized that "since anxiety reduction" is an essential part in "learning to avoid painful →Executive Functions - higher order mental abilities involved in "goal-directed behaviour" situations" and psychopaths are presumed as "anxiety-free" • organizing behaviour = psychopaths will have "special difficulty" in learning to avoid unpleasant things • memory • inhibition processing Oriented Response (OR) • planning strategies -the observation of a "complex physiological response" - nonspecific and highly-complicated cortical and sensory response to strange, unexpected changes in the environment Pre-Frontal Damage -Pavlov referred to OR as the "what-is-it" reflex - autonomic, reflexive action toANY CHANGE • poor decision-making (produces an INCREASE in "analytical powers" of the senses and the cortex) • reduced autonomic functioning • psychopathic-like personality -Hare found that psychopaths show VERY LITTLE autonomic activity and give SMALLER OR (less sensitive and alert to their environment) → the cardiac activity in a psychopath isAS HIGH as the general population (learn to react Amygdala Dysfunction autonomically when heart rate is measured) • psychopaths are BORN with a "biological disposition" to develop the Hare Experiment #1 Lykken Experiment #1 disorder and that the predisposition requires certain "psychosocial" factors Electric shock after a sound after 10 sec.Test performance of psychopaths on before emerging Polygraph equipment • psychopaths have a NERVOUS SYSTEM that "interferes" with "rapid In anticipation of shock, psychopaths Psychopaths emitted "similar" skin conditioning" and association between TRANSGRESSION and PUNISHMENT (fail to anticipate punishment and feel guilt) showed a RAPIDACCERLATION of conductance REGARDLESS of whether heartbeat followed by RAPID DECELLER.they were telling the truth or not • possible that certain aspects of the psychopath's NERVOUS SYSTEM simply haven't MATURED YET before the stimulus • GENETIC TOXICITY in utero or early childhood, birth difficulties, Their skin conductance remained Polygraph cannot differentiate between temperament, and other early development factors "significantly lower" than non-psychos truth and lie because psychopaths are -IN GENERAL - persistent and serious offending that "emerges" EARLY IN LIFE is driven partially by HERTIABLE INFLUENCES that are "strengthend/weakened" during childhood by "parenting and generally "underaroused" other environmental factors" -psychopaths are MORE LIKELY to have experienced "family difficulties (parental neglect, abuse, -psychopaths are SUPERIOR CONDITIONERS when cardiac activity is measured → an accelerative heart rate response is ADAPTIVE and helps TUNE OUT the "emotional impact" ofexperiences) →Life-Course Persistent Offender - have anti-social behaviours acrossALL KINDS of conditions and the stimulus situations in their childhood -show a variety of "minor neuropsychological disorders" (difficult-infant temperament, attention -Hare hypothesizes that psychopaths suffer from a general "hypoemotionality": failure to experience deficits, hyperactivity, and learning problems the "full impact" of any kind of emotion (lack of remorse??) Treatment of Psychopaths 4 Conclusions about Autonomic Functioning of a Psychopath Why are they so difficult to treat? • they are an EXTREME, QUALITATIVELY distinct category 1. psychopaths appear to be bothAUTONOMICALLY and CORTICALLY underaroused (both under • psychopathy is EXTREMELY PERSISTENT throughout life "rest" and "stress" conditions) • psychopathy has BIOLOGICAL CAUSES that cannot be changed by interventions 2. because they lack necessary emotional equipment - they appear to be "deficient" in AVOIDANCE LEANRING = high recidivism rate • the lying, conning, and manipulativeness make them TREATMENT RESISTENT 3. if emotional arousal can be "induced" (adrenaline) - psychopaths can learn from past experiences and avoid "normally painful" situations Where are Psychopaths?? Criminal - sex offenders Business - managers, CEOs, investment bankers 4. with adequate incentives, psychopaths can LEARN FROM PAST EXPERIENCES and avoid aversive consequences Military - sexual sadism and spies ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Chapter 8 - Crime and Mental Disorders Childhood of a Psychopath Possibilities Mental Illness (disease of the mind) - disorder of the mind that INTERFERES substantially with a person's ability to cope with life on a daily basis: DEPRIVES a person of FREEDOM OF CHOICE Serious Mental Disorder (SMD) - impedes/potential to impede a person's functioning 1. Positive Symptoms : Delusions and/or hallucinations (psychotic dimension) • most people with SMD do not engage in violence 2. Disorganized Symptoms : speech, gross disorganization, catatonic behaviour • people with SMD are MORE LIKELY to commit violence • people with SMD are MORE LIKELY to be victims 3. Negative Symptoms : flattered affect, alogia, avolition • people with mental disorders and substance abuse are at "elevated risk" for Loosening ofAssociations - ideas SHIFT between "unrelated" and "related" subjects violence • link between MD and Violence not fully understood Delusions - false beliefs of the world (ex. aliens are abducting you) -inappropriate with manners and emotions Mental Disorder - doesn't imply the individual is "sick" or responsible for their actions (less restrictive than mental illness) Hallucinations - perceiving things/events that others don't perceive (ex. communicating with aliens) Mental Retardation - (developmental/intellectual disability) - cognitive deficiency measured b(most common hallucination:AUDITORY) tests ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Delusional Disorders DSM - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -delusions are "reasonably believable" and not so "far fetched" (non-bizarre) DSM-IV FUNDAMENTAL FEATURE - persecutory beliefs about being "spied, cheated, conspired, followed - 4 Categories of Mental Disorders 1. Schizophrenic Disorders (Psychotic) 2. Paranoid/Delusional Disorders (Category) 3. Mood Disorders (Serious Depression) Anti-Social Personality Disorder - history of continuous behaviour where the rights of others are 4.Anti-Social Personality Disorder (PersviolatedDisorder) →are organized into 5 axis -Characteristics: -failure to "conform" to social norms/criminal law -irritability and unusual aggressiveness (repeated physical fights/assaults) • Axis I - Clinical Disorder (mood disorder, phobias, schizophrenia, gender identity) -impulsivity or failure to plan ahead -deceitfulness - frequent lying and conning for personal pleasure/benefit • Axis II - Personality Disorder (OCD, anti-social, borderline) -reckless disregard for safety of others and one's self • Axis III - General medical conditions that may be related to the mental disorder -lack of remorse or guilt for wrongdoings • Axis IV - Psychosocial or environment factors (family, education, economicns committed: stealing, fighting, truancy, and resisting authority, failure to become problems) independent, and deficits in executive functioning) • Axis V -Assessment of patient's general level of functioning Depressive Disorders -mood disorders - being extremely depressed for at least 2 weeks and slowing down of mental and Schizophrenia - mental disorder associated with "crazy behaviour" since it manifephysical activity (deep and long-lasting) actions Mania - period of depression and periods euphoria -Characteristics: severe breakdowns in "thought patterns, emotions, and perceptions" ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Incompetency to Stand Trial - Unfit to Stand Trial 5 Characteristic Symptoms of Schizophrenia 1. Disorganized Type - show inappropriate emotion and disorganization in thoughIncompetence - doesn't refer ONLY to one's mental and emotional state - may refer to one's LACK 2. Catatonic Type - severe disturbances in muscular and voluntary movement OF UNDERSTANDING of court proceedings/one's right/or functions performed by lawyer 3. Paranoid Type - characterized by delusions and hallucinations (most likely to engage in crime) 4. Undifferential Type - shows psychotic symptoms that CANNOT be classified into Section 2 of criminal code: refers to "ability to mount a defence during a trial" category -unable, on account of mental disorder to... 5. Residual Type - had at least 1 episode of schizophrenia • understand that nature or goal of proceedings Schizophreniform - behavioural pattern that shows at least 2 indicators of "delusions, • understand the consequences of the proceedings hallucinations, disorganized speech" (symptoms must persist for at least 1 month but less than 6 months) • communicate with counsel 2 Concepts 1. Competence to Proceed - understanding purpose of proceedings and being able to help lawyer 2. Decisional Competence - implies the ability to "comprehend" the significance ofdeciesanaragardaeph - intended to "disallow" the NCRMD defence for criminal psychopaths who persistently violate social norms and law Not Criminally Responsible because of Mental Disorder Section 16 of Criminal Code 3. Durham Rule -refers to the "mental state AT THE TIME OF OFFENCE" (lacking mens rea (crim -dieelniet ti)s not criminally responsible if the unlawful act was the "product" of mental disease -mental disorder is the "direct cause" of INABILITY to distinguish between right aCdHAronGgES?? - placing the defendant with "burden of proof" proving they were insane, restricting role of clinical testimony, requiring people that are NCRMD to "prove" they are NO LONGER mentally ill *someone can be "fit to stand trial" and still be NCRMD before being released -until 1970, procedure for evaluating competency required that the defendant be "confined within a MAX SECURITY institution for a psychiatric-psychological evaluation *************************************************************************** R v. Demers (2004) -provisions of the Criminal Code that applied to an accused who was "not dangerous" but permanently unfit to stand trial -due to permanent disability, Demers would never be fit to stand trial -Bill C-10 (2006) gave the courts the authority to order a "stay of proceedings" if accused is unlikely to ever become fit to stand trial but is NOTATHREAT to society *************************************************************************** Competency to Stand Trial -the ability to PARTICIPATE in a variety of court proceedings and court-related activities (ex. plea bargains, preliminary hearings, pre-trial hearings) →if defendant is found "incompetent" to stand trial, court has determined that they CANNOT UNDERSTAND the process or effectively participate Unique Defences NCRMD/UTSD Standards -standards/tests are centered around 3 broad models: M'Naughton Rule, Brawner Rule, and Durham • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder - development of symptoms following Rule (all are based on 2 criteria: IRRITABILITYAND COMPULSION) exposure to "extreme traumatic stress" involving direct personal experience of →Irritability - not in control of their mental processes an event that "follows a threat" to one's physical integrity (ex. witnessing a →Compulsion - not in control of their behaviour at time of offence death/injury) 1. M'Naughton Rule -falls in category of "Anxiety Disorder" - persistent anxiety and worry -person is not responsible for a criminal act if... at time of offence, the defendant was under such a "severe mental disorder" and didn't know the nature of their actions or know their actions were wrong Symptoms: flashbacks, recurrent dreams and nightmares, painful intrusive memories Acute Symptoms Chronic Symptoms Delayed Onset PTSD Right and Wrong Test - being aware and knowing what one was doing atm was illegal - knowing right from wrong from a moral sense Symptoms lasting 3 months Symptoms lasting LONGER When at least 6 months has than 3 months passed since traumatic event 2. Brawner Rule -based on "insanity rule" suggested by the "Model Penal Code (MPC) - person is not responsible if atm, as a result of mental disorder, they LACK CAPACITY to appreciate the wrongfulness of their conduct Disassociated State - symptoms where the individual feels "detached" from themselves and their surroundings and basically loses contact with reality (individual doesn't remember what they experienced or even their identity) -the mental disorder had to... 1. influence the defendant's mental and emotional processes 2. Impaired their ability to control behaviour Disassocation - can refer to "daydreaming" or extreme amnesia fro past events or "dissociative identity Summary disorder (DID) - 5 different dissociative disorders -past mental disorders alone are NOT GOOD PREDICTORS of violence -mental disorders most closely associated with violent + serious offences = Schizophrenia Dissociative Identity Disorder - (multiple personality disorder) - existence within a person -violence is associated with "current serious mental disorder" - especially when a there's a "history" of distinct personalities that "recurrently take control of behaviour" violent behaviour Iatrogenic - unintentionally caused by clincians themselves - those that believe in DID "look " ales who develop schizophrenia + score HIGH on PCL-R = increased risk of being violent variety of behaviours as "symptoms" of a disorder -males who develop schizophrenia and show anti-social behaviour at early age = prone to "persistent and = versatile patterns of criminal offending may develop the syndrome in the patient Mentally-disordered Inmates Amnesia - complete or partial memory loss of an event, series, or some events b-asuteat:dptyastalALF of all prison populations have a "mental health problem" trauma, neurophysiological disturbances, or psychological factors -an individual may become mentally disorderedAFTER being institutionalized →according to DSM-IV - individuals with amnesia are "impaired" in their ability to learn new info or are unable to recall previously-learned info or past events Guilty but Mentally Ill -major intention is to REDUCE the # of "insanity acquittals" : holds the defendant responsible but Retrograde Amnesia Anterograde Amnesia LimitedAmnesiaecognizes the presence of a mental disorder Severely impaired ability to Acquire and retain new Pathological inability toMI receive LONGER sentences and have LONGER confinements than sane defendants remember past material material remember a speci**************************************************************************** Tarosoff Case from the recent -woman stabbed and killed by Poddar, an outpatient from UC Berkeley -may be caused by "emotionaltrist learned about his intentions and became concerned but did not warn anyone Outcome?? -what duty do therapists owe to 3rd parties in warning them about possible behaviour from their clients Shock, alcohol, or drug intoxication Duty to Warn - when psychiatrist determines that a patient is a serious danger to another person Duty to Protect - don't need to warn but take steps to "protect: the individual from harm Chapter 9 - Homicide,Assault, and Family Violence ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Mental Disorder and Violence/Crime -vast majority of criminal homicides involve: angry friends, spouses, or acquaintances killing each other -most common types of disorders: -Anti-Social and Paranoid Disorder (men) -54% of all homicides: victim and perpetrator HADARELATIONSHIP -Anti-Social and Borderline Disorder (women)-25% of victims were RELATED to their killer and 53% were acquainted to them -Paranoid Personality Disorder - delusional symptoms of non-bizarre type lasing more than a month Availability Heuristic - Heuristic - cognitive shortcuts that people use to make "quick references" about -Mood Disorder - bi-polar: most linkedtheir world (ex. media continually showing graphic and frightening accounts of violence = people are between mood swings is what causes engagement in criminal activity) likely to incorporate these vivid details and have them readily available for future references = can increase their fear of violent crime) Schizophrenia and Anti-Social Behaviour -most associated with violent behaviour -higher rates of mental illness in prison populations than general population • rates have been decreasing since the mid 1970s -80% in Prison / 31% in general population • gang-related homicides are increasing -male, mentally disordered population may beAT RISK for committing violence • rates higher as you move West and North -male schizophrenics with "alcohol abuse" problems are 25x MORE LIKELY to commit violent crimes • males are most likely to be perpetrator • 33% of homicides are committed by Family means to cause bodily harm that they know is • 32% by gun, 32% by stabbing likely to cause death and is "reckless" whether death ensues or not Homicides andAggravatedAssaults -where a person, meaning to cause death to a human or meaning to cause him bodily harm that he -researchers view aggravated assaults as "failed homicide attempts" (rates are 20x that of homicide) Criminal Homicide - causing the death of another person WITHOUT LEGAL JUSTIFICATION or knows is likely to cause death, and being reckless whether death happens or not , causes death EXCUSE -where a person, for an unlawful object, does anything that he knows is likely to cause death, and →Murder - unlawful killing of one human being by another with malice, either expressed or causes death to a human implied MaliceAfterthought - premeditation (mental state of a person who thinks ahead, plans and voluntarily causes the death of another, without legal excuse or justification) Section 230 - Murder in the Commission ofAnother Offence Negligent Manslaughter - killing of another as a result of RECKLESSNESS or CULPABLEable homicide is murder where a "person causes the death of human while committing or attempting NEGLIGENCE (no intent to kill, but one should "know their actions" could result in death of another)/sabotage/hijacking/assaulting a peace officer/sexual assault etc.. Section 223 -Fetal Rights Non-Negligent Manslaugher - action that is MORE THAN NEGLIGENT or RECKLESS but "less than premeditated" (usually happens in "highly aroused emotional stress") -when a child becomes a human being and killing of a child by the mother • S.224 - death by which might have been prevented 1. Mass Murder - several people at one location within a short time period • S.225 - death from treatment of injury 2. Spree Murder - several people are different locations (no cooling off) • S.226 - acceleration of death • S.228 - killing by influence on the mind 3. Serial Murder - +3 victims over an extended period of time (cooling off period) General Altercation Homicide - result of hostile aggression AggravatedAssault - there is an "intention" to inflict serious bodily injury (use of dangerous weapon) Hostile Aggression - form of "reactive aggression" and occurs in response to "anger-inducing →SimpleAssault - unlawful, intentional inflicting of LESS THAN SERIOUS bodilconditions" = MAKE VICTIM SUFFER without a deadly weapon Hostile Attribution Bias - promotes violence whenever an individual perceives provocations and threats, Assault - intentional inflicting of bodily injury on another person OR attemptno matter the severity (sees threat when there's no threat) ImpulsivityAggression - aggression for the sake of "obtaining some object, rewards, or status" Weapons Effect - the mere sight of an "aggressive stimulus" can influence behapossessed by another person associated with violence .. ex. presence of a gun can bring "violence-related thoughts") Provocation Violence - cold-blooded, unemotional, and premeditated aggression for purpose of Typology - system of "classifying" personality, motivation, or other behaviourPERSONAL GAINusually used to organize a wide variety of behaviours into "more manageable" set of descriptions) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------Juvenile Murderers----------------------- Types of Homicide • First Degree (section 222) - planned and deliberate (premeditated) : 25 yearsy of "severe educational difficulties" compared to nonviolent juveniles without parole -76% show a "learning disability" / 86% had failed at least 1st grade • Second Degree - intentional but not premeditated (no plan-juvenile murderers tend to have backgrounds that "lack parental monitoring": knowing child's • Infanticide (section 233) whereabouts, being involved in child's school activities, supervising time for activities • Manslaughter - murder committed during "heat of passion, sudden provocation, Dynamic Cascade Model and criminal negligence" - unintentional, causing death due to recklessness/carelessness (10 years or less) -a "succession" of developmental skills or deficits that "enhance, affect, or determine: the next skill or deficit along a "life-course trajectory" -Loeber states that the "probability" of individuals committing homicide is ENHANCED by their Section 229 - Culpable Murder "exposure" to anACCUMULATION of different risk factors -where the person who causes the death of human: means to cause the death ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ -Dynamic Cascade Model hypothesizes that "each risk-factor group operates in "anti-social" and "violent Missing,Abducted, Runaway, and Thrownaway Children outcomes" by DIRECTLY INFLUENCING the next group in a "developmental sequence" Thrownaway - an individual whose parents "throws" out of the home -children who run away from home do so to "escape" neglect or abuse from their current home Stereotypical ChildAbduction - abductions that end in tragedy, have traumatizing effects on communities, and receive considerable attention from media →first 3 hours of an abduction are MOST CRITICAL: 2/3 of abducted children are KILLED during that time frame (nearly half of them are killed within the first hour) Family Violence -any assault, intimidation, battery, sexual assault/battery or any criminal offeMunchausen Syndrome by Proxy "personal injury or death" of one family or household member who is living with -form of child abuse where the parent (mother) consistently and chronically brings a child in for "medical attention" with "fake" symptoms induced by the parent (aka: domestic violence, intimate partner violence, spousal abuse, child abuse, maloffending mother is VERY KNOWLEDGEABLE about medical issues, has fascination in medical abuse) issues, and has medical history of "fabricated illnesses" -19% of all arrest made are for "aggravated assaults" / 68% for simple assaults Shaken Baby Syndrome members -where a parent, usually, in anger, "shakes" a baby so hard that serious head injuries result (head -children under 5 make up 5% of family-aggravated assaults / 4% are family simpltrauma is the leading killer of abused children) INFATNSARE MOST VULNERABLE VICTIMS FOR FAMILYVIOLENCE Infanticide Incidence, Prevalence, and Demographics of ChildAbuse and Neglect -form of child homicide where a person intentionally kills a child and intends death to occur (not accidental or result of abuse or neglect) Maltreatment - all forms of abuse/neglect and can be divided into 5 types -2/3 of murdered children are killed by family members (mostly parents) -1974-2001 - children under 6 were "more likely" to be killed by STRANGULATION or 1. PhysicalAbuse - occurs when a parent WILLFULLY injures, causes injury, or allows a child to BEATING be injured out of "cruelty" or "excessive punishment" -older children are "more likely" to be killed by FIREARM with 32% of victims aged 6-8 years and +50% of victims aged 15-17 dying from gunshot wounds 2. EmotionalAbuse - chronic pattern of behaviour where the child is "belittled, denied love, or subjected to extreme or inappropriate punishment" Neonaticide - killing of a newborn with the first 24 hours after birth (dispose of the problem) 3. Emotional Neglect - failure to provide a child with appropriate SUPPORT,ATTENFilicide - killing of a child OLDER than 24 hours (reflection of parental depression or feelings of being AFFECTION overwhelmed) -those that commit filicide are showing symptoms of "affective disorders, psychotic disorder, or 4. SexualAbuse - EXPLOITATION of a child for another person's sexual and controlcombination of the 2 -most are diagnosed with POST-PARTUM DEPRESSION - depressive episode thought to be brought 5. Child Neglect - chronic failure of a parent to provide a child with basic neeonly by childbirth, shelter, education, protection, supervision) 3 Categories of Mental Reactions: Missing and Exploited - the kidnapping of a child from a custodial parent, child1. Post-Partum Blues - crying, irritability, anxiety, confusion strangers, or child sexual exploitation for child porn or prostitution 2. Post-Partum Depression - depression, loss of appetite, sleep disturbances , fatigue 3. Post-Partum Psychosis - similar to serious bipolar disorder Poly-Victimization/Victim - children who experience "multiple victimizations" over the course of their development (+4 victimizations over the course of 1 year) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Intimate Partner Abuse -the physical, physiological, and sexual violence perpetrated by individuals in a present or past intimate • Patricide - killing father relationship • Matricide - killing mother Battered Women Syndrome - cluster of behavioural and emotional features that are often shared by • Sorocide - killing sister women who have been "physically" and "psychologically" abused • Fratracide - killing brother (feelings of low self-esteem, depression, and learned helplessness) • Parracide - killing one or more parents Psychological and Demographic Characteristics ofAbusers -men who abuse their children are seen as "incompetent, immature individuals, overwhelmed and Multiassaultive Families frustrated by their parental responsibilities -characterized by "continual cycles" of interfamilial physical aggression and violence (siblings hit each other, spouses hit each other, parents hit children etc..) 3 Types of Male-Spouse Batterers -children from Multiassaultive Families are MORE LIKELY to be involved in property crime and have Type I Batterers - abuse family members ONLY (most common) adjustment difficulties in school and be involved with police -tend to be less aggressive and be more remorseful for their actions 2. Type II Batterers - abuse family members because of "emotional problems" The Cycle of Violence -depressed, inadequate individuals who are "emotionally volatile" and show symptoms of "personalitythat individuals that grow up to be abusive are the result that "they were abused disorders" and psychopathy themselves -according to Social Learning Theory - those who receive "harsh discipline" learn that physical 3. Type III Batterers - generally violent toward both family members and those outside the family -anti-social, criminally prone, and violent across situations: more likely to abuse alcohol and aree used to "change the behaviours of others" generally more aggressive towards everyone Coercion Development Theory - coercive and punitive
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