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Final

CRIM 104 Study Guide - Final Guide: Mahatma Gandhi, Masculinity, Prenatal Nutrition

9 pages161 viewsFall 2012

Department
Criminology
Course Code
CRIM 104
Professor
Barry Cartwright
Study Guide
Final

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SOCIAL CONTROL THEORIES
IVAN NYE FAMILY FOCUSED SOCIAL CONTROL
Direct control = punishment or restraints act as external forces
Internalized control = individual regulates his/her own behavior super ego
Indirect control = identification with an affection for parents and significant others (reappear on Travis Hirschi’s Element of
Attachment Theory)
SOCIALIZATION
If you want social control, then you need effective socialization. = the process that individuals go through.
o It includes good supervision and behavior modeling, by parents, neighbours, school teachers, community leaders.
o Children learn the importance of social conventional norms being polite, respect, follow rules
If people don’t internalize social conventions/norms, then social control break down and become weakened/ineffective
INFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL SHAW AND MCKAY
Forerunners of contemporary social control theory
normally exercised by parents, neighbors, schools, religious organizations, and other community-based organizations.
Social disorganization + breakdown of social control (lack parent control, distrust neighbour, overwhelmed schools, conflict
religious values) = gangs and delinquency
Zone in transition youth freed from social restraints free to gather on street corners, no adult supervision, led to the
formation of youth gangs and juvenile delinquency
SOCIAL BONDS
Popularized by Travis Hirschi, but Durkheim used the term 70 years ago
Durkheim used the term to describe the social ties that unite individuals and attach them to society
Maintained through forces of integration (shared social values, attachment, attraction)
Travis Hirschi used Durkheim’s notions of “attachment” and “belief” in his 1969 social bond theory.
Delinquency as a Failure of Personal and Social Controls ALBERT REISS (Chicago School)
Personal controls came from within, and consisted of an individual’s internalization of rules/norms of society
Stressed importance of informal social controls exercised by parents and by community institutions
Talked about how people conform through “acceptance” and/or “submission”
Delinquency = consequence of the failure of primary groups to provide the child with appropriate non-delinquent roles and
to exercise social control over the child
CONTAINMENT THEORY WALTER RECKLESS
Inner Containments: self-control, good self-image, ability to tolerate frustration (psychological)
Outer Containments: family morals and values, institutional reinforcement from school and religion (sociological)
Internal Pushes : restlessness, impatience, anger (psychological)
External pulls: unemployment, media influence, delinquent peers, poverty (sociological)
Pushes/Pulls work to produce delinquency if strong enough, could push/pull individual toward delinquency
SOCIAL BOND THEORY TRAVIS HIRSCHI
Theory was inspired by the work of Emile Durkheim and the Chicago School (Reiss & Reckless).
Attachment = ties of affection and respect, with parents, school teachers
Commitment = committed to getting good grades, good education, good job, maintain good reputation
Involvement = involved in recreation sports, in school, in family
Belief = shared values, believing in the law and conventional norms, respect for authority
LOW SELF-CONTROL THEORY GOTTFREDSON AND HIRSCHI
1990 book A General Theory of Crime
Signs (symptoms) of low self-control include impulsivity, short sightedness, inability to delay gratification
Once low self-control develops, it tends to be highly stable over the life course
Poor or ineffective parenting (usually by parents who lack self-control themselves) = children with low self-control =
future deviants and criminals
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LIFE COURSE THEORIES AND STUDIES
LIFE COURSE-DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES
Examine changes in the susceptibility for delinquency and criminality as individuals transition through stages of life
View crime as part of reciprocal causal loop variables interact and influence each other
Both Thornberry’s IT and Laub and Sampson’s TPT are developmental-life course theories
TERRIE MOFFITT 1993 ADOLESCENT LIMITED VS LIFE COURSE PERSISTEMT
Adolescent-limited = increase in delinquency during adolescence and dramatic decline in delinquency as adulthood
approaches
o No notable history of antisocial behavior in childhood
o Some start offending by age 11-13, more at around age 15, most desist by mid-20’s
o Consistent with social learning theory seeking reinforcement/symbolic status from peers, based on
imitation/modeling, see others get status when eg selling drugs, so they want it too
Life course persistent = small group of offenders who start at early age, continue through childhood and adolescence, and
remain serious, chronic offenders for life
o Causes:
Poor pre-natal nutrition, pre-natal exposure to toxins, resulting in brain injuries that later result in later anti-
social/violent behaviour
Lack of affection, stimulation and nutrition may disrupt neural development
Cognitive ability/disability inherited from parents
INTERACTIONAL THEORY Terrence Thornberry
life course theory /integrated theory
Influenced by SCT, SLT, SDT, dukheim’s social bond
Variables in delinquency have reciprocal causal loop (back and forth or circular motion)
o Successful attachment to parents = more commitment, involvement and belief
o Weak attachment to parents/school = increase interaction with delinquent peers, learn their values = More
delinquency values/attachment = weaken social bond
Thus delinquent is not an end product; rather it influences environment and strengthen/weaken social institutions
TURNING POINT THEORY Laub and Sampson
Root in Durkheim and Hirschi’s social bond
Argue that crime is not necessarily stable over the life course social bond/informal social control can change for
better/worse over time
Earlier trajectories into criminal career can be changed by social ties later in live (eg marriage, children, job)
Trajectories = life pathways that individuals are on, and the direction they are going
o Bad= “on a pathway/trajectory toward a life time of criminality”
o Good= “on a pathway toward social success and conformity”
Transitions = changes in status that may change trajectories (eg graduating, marriage, employment)
Turning points = Where pathways come to a fork if choose right one can deflect away from crime
SOCIAL CAPITAL
Sampson and Laub and Thornberry redefine social bond in terms of ‘social capital’
Social capital = social resources that individuals have available to them social relationships, neighbourhood networks,
the degree of social support which they receive from family, friends, employers, etc
o Social capital is roughly equivalent to social bond attachment, commitment, involvement
Individuals with strong social capital = reluctant to commit crime because they have more to lose
o Eg Going to prison can lose job/marriage
Social capital = new source of informal social control and helps to explain why majority of young offenders do not go on to
become adult offenders
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LABELING THEORY
SEMIOLOGY
The study of signs and symbols, or how meaning is conveyed
Semiology studies linguists and discourse
In criminology, semiology is concerned with how agents of signification define criminal or deviant behaviors
Agents include the media, moral entrepreneurs and political leaders
DRAMATIZATION OF EVIL TAG FRANK TANNENBAUM crime and community
“The dramatization of evil”; a ‘tag’ being applied to identify child as delinquent
As a result, child might change own self-image, or others might come to regard child as a delinquent
An arrest means the delinquent is singled out for special treatment, followed by a series of events including exposure to
criminal justice institutions
WAYWARD PURITANS KAI ERIKSON
Influenced by Durkheim’s views that crime is normal in society (crime serves function, maintain symbolic boundaries)
Recounts how the Puritans, who migrated from England to Massachusetts in the early 1960s in search of a new place to
practice religion
find themselves surrounded by deviance in their community of saints one crime wave to another (eg Quaker crisis,
witchcraft crisis)
Erikson views the events in Puritan colony as evidence of Durkheims belief that even a ‘society of saints’ would search out
small faults as criminal/deviant
o THE QUAKERS VS PURITAN: Puritans disliked the Quakers even though almost identical, puritans made quaker’s
religion a deviance - Continue until King of England stopped it
1st offence flogging (beating) / 2nd offence cut off ear / 3rd offence cut off other ear, burn hole in
tongue / 4th offence banishment, and hanging if you returned
o THE WITCH TRIALS: In a period of one year hundreds were accused, 22 were hung
Notes on the Sociology of Deviance Kai Erikson
Like Durkheim, Erikson describes how crime promote social conformity and draw boundaries
Like Garfinkel, Erikson talks about status degradation ceremonies, starting with confrontation between deviant and
community, followed by judgement, and end with disposition or placement
Like Goffman, Erikson remarks on stigmatization (labeling) that occurs at status degradation ceremonies. usually affixed
at the end of a dramatic and highly public event (eg court trial or insanity hearing)
SPOILED SOCIAL IDENTITY GOFFMAN (symbolic interactionists, Chicago School)
Spoiled identity resulted from stigmatization and how individuals attempted to cope with this spoiled identity
Like Goffman, Erikson remarks on stigmatization (labeling) that occurs at status degradation ceremonies. usually affixed
at the end of a dramatic and highly public event (eg court trial or insanity hearing)
Also no similar process exists for removal of stigma even after the individual completed his time of imprisonment/
treatment thus stigmatized permanently, and contribute to ongoing deviant behavior (identity has been spoiled)
STATUS DEGRADTION CEREMONIES GARFINKEL
Found in most societies, serve as outlets for expression of moral indignation, and as forms for public condemnation and
shaming for those who violate social norms
E.g. sanity hearings (mental illness), excommunication (church), courts martial (military), criminal trials (for criminality)
Like Garfinkel, Erikson talks about status degradation ceremonies, starting with confrontation between deviant and
community, followed by judgement (guilt or mental illness), and end with disposition or placement (prison, psychiatric
institution)
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