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Crim104 - Final Review.docx

9 Pages

Course Code
CRIM 104
Barry Cartwright

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SOCIAL CONTROL THEORIES IVAN NYE – FAMILY – FOCUSED SOCIAL CONTROL  Direct control = punishment or restraints act as external forces  Internalized control = individual regulates his/her own behavior – super ego  Indirect control = identification with an affection for parents and significant others (reappear on Travis Hirschi’s Element of Attachment Theory) SOCIALIZATION  If you want social control, then you need effective socialization. = the process that individuals go through. o It includes good supervision and behavior modeling, by parents, neighbours, school teachers, community leaders. o Children learn the importance of social conventional norms – being polite, respect, follow rules  If people don’t internalize social conventions/norms, then social control break down and become weakened/ineffective INFORMAL SOCIAL CONTROL – SHAW AND MCKAY  Forerunners of contemporary social control theory  normally exercised by parents, neighbors, schools, religious organizations, and other community-based organizations.  Social disorganization + breakdown of social control (lack parent control, distrust neighbour, overwhelmed schools, conflict religious values) = gangs and delinquency  Zone in transition – youth freed from social restraints – free to gather on street corners, no adult supervision, led to the formation of youth gangs and juvenile delinquency SOCIAL BONDS  Popularized by Travis Hirschi, but Durkheim used the term 70 years ago  Durkheim used the term to describe the social ties that unite individuals and attach them to society  Maintained through forces of integration (shared social values, attachment, attraction)  Travis Hirschi used Durkheim’s notions of “attachment” and “belief” in his 1969 social bond theory. Delinquency as a Failure of Personal and Social Controls – ALBERT REISS (Chicago School)  Personal controls came from within, and consisted of an individual’s internalization of rules/norms of society Stressed importance of informal social controls exercised by parents and by community institutions  Talked about how people conform through “acceptance” and/or “submission”  Delinquency = consequence of the failure of primary groups to provide the child with appropriate non-delinquent roles and to exercise social control over the child CONTAINMENT THEORY – WALTER RECKLESS  Inner Containments: self-control, good self-image, ability to tolerate frustration (psychological)  Outer Containments: family morals and values, institutional reinforcement from school and religion (sociological)  Internal Pushes : restlessness, impatience, anger (psychological)  External pulls: unemployment, media influence, delinquent peers, poverty (sociological)  Pushes/Pulls work to produce delinquency – if strong enough, could push/pull individual toward delinquency SOCIAL BOND THEORY – TRAVIS HIRSCHI  Theory was inspired by the work of Emile Durkheim and the Chicago School (Reiss & Reckless).  Attachment = ties of affection and respect, with parents, school teachers  Commitment = committed to getting good grades, good education, good job, maintain good reputation  Involvement = involved in recreation sports, in school, in family  Belief = shared values, believing in the law and conventional norms, respect for authority LOW SELF-CONTROL THEORY – GOTTFREDSON AND HIRSCHI  1990 book A General Theory of Crime  Signs (symptoms) of low self-control include impulsivity, short sightedness, inability to delay gratification  Once low self-control develops, it tends to be highly stable over the life course  Poor or ineffective parenting (usually by parents who lack self-control themselves) = children with low self-control = future deviants and criminals LIFE COURSE THEORIES AND STUDIES LIFE COURSE-DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES  Examine changes in the susceptibility for delinquency and criminality as individuals transition through stages of life  View crime as part of reciprocal causal loop – variables interact and influence each other  Both Thornberry’s IT and Laub and Sampson’s TPT are developmental-life course theories TERRIE MOFFITT 1993 – ADOLESCENT LIMITED VS LIFE COURSE PERSISTEMT  Adolescent-limited = increase in delinquency during adolescence and dramatic decline in delinquency as adulthood approaches o No notable history of antisocial behavior in childhood o Some start offending by age 11-13, more at around age 15, most desist by mid-20’s o Consistent with social learning theory – seeking reinforcement/symbolic status from peers, based on imitation/modeling, see others get status when eg selling drugs, so they want it too  Life course persistent = small group of offenders who start at early age, continue through childhood and adolescence, and remain serious, chronic offenders for life o Causes:  Poor pre-natal nutrition, pre-natal exposure to toxins, resulting in brain injuries that later result in later anti- social/violent behaviour  Lack of affection, stimulation and nutrition may disrupt neural development  Cognitive ability/disability inherited from parents INTERACTIONAL THEORY – Terrence Thornberry  life course theory /integrated theory  Influenced by SCT, SLT, SDT, dukheim’s social bond  Variables in delinquency hareciprocal causal loop (back and forth or circular motion) o Successful attachment to parents = more commitment, involvement and belief o Weak attachment to parents/school = increase interaction with delinquent peers, learn their values = More delinquency values/attachment = weaken social bond  Thus delinquent is not an end product; rather it influences environment and strengthen/weaken social institutions TURNING POINT THEORY – Laub and Sampson  Root in Durkheim and Hirschi’s social bond  Argue that crime is not necessarily stable over the life course – social bond/informal social control can change for better/worse over time  Earlier trajectories into criminal career can be changed by social ties later in live (eg marriage, children, job)  Trajectories = life pathways that individuals are on, and the direction they are going o Bad= “on a pathway/trajectory toward a life time of criminality” o Good= “on a pathway toward social success and conformity”  Transitions = changes in status that may change trajectories (eg graduating, marriage, employment)  Turning points = Where pathways come to a fork – if choose right one can deflect away from crime SOCIAL CAPITAL  Sampson and Laub and Thornberry redefine social bond in terms of ‘social capital’  Social capital = social resources that individuals have available to them – social relationships, neighbourhood networks, the degree of social support which they receive from family, friends, employers, etc o Social capital is roughly equivalent to social bond – attachment, commitment, involvement  Individuals with strong social capital = reluctant to commit crime because they have more to lose o Eg Going to prison can lose job/marriage  Social capital = new source of informal social control and helps to explain why majority of young offenders do not go on to become adult offenders LABELING THEORY SEMIOLOGY  The study of signs and symbols, or how meaning is conveyed  Semiology studies linguists and discourse  In criminology, semiology is concerned with how agents of signification define criminal or deviant behaviors  Agents include the media, moral entrepreneurs and political leaders “DRAMATIZATION OF EVIL” – TAG – FRANK TANNENBAUM – “crime and community”  “The dramatization of evil”; a ‘tag’ being applied to identify child as delinquent  As a result, child might change own self-image, or others might come to regard child as a delinquent  An arrest means the delinquent is singled out for special treatment, followed by a series of events including exposure to criminal justice institutions WAYWARD PURITANS – KAI ERIKSON  Influenced by Durkheim’s views that crime is normal in society (crime serves function, maintain symbolic boundaries)  Recounts how the Puritans, who migrated from England to Massachusetts in the early 1960s in search of a new place to practice religion  find themselves surrounded by deviance in their ‘community of saints’ – one crime wave to another (eg Quaker crisis, witchcraft crisis)  Erikson views the events in Puritan colony as evidence of Durkheim’s belief that even a ‘society of saints’ would search out small faults as criminal/deviant o THE QUAKERS VS PURITAN: Puritans disliked the Quakers – even though almost identical, puritans made quaker’s religion a deviance - Continue until King of England stopped it  1st offence – flogging (beating) / 2nd offence – cut off ear / 3rd offence – cut off other ear, burn hole in tongue / 4th offence – banishment, and hanging if you returned o THE WITCH TRIALS: In a period of one year hundreds were accused, 22 were hung Notes on the Sociology of Deviance – Kai Erikson  Like Durkheim, Erikson describes how crime promote social conformity and draw boundaries  Like Garfinkel, Erikson talks about status degradation ceremonies, starting with confrontation between deviant and community, followed by judgement, and end with disposition or placement  Like Goffman, Erikson remarks on stigmatization (labeling) that occurs at status degradation ceremonies. – usually affixed at the end of a dramatic and highly public event (eg court trial or insanity hearing) SPOILED SOCIAL IDENTITY – GOFFMAN (symbolic interactionists, Chicago School)  Spoiled identity resulted from stigmatization and how individuals attempted to cope with this spoiled identity  Like Goffman, Erikson remarks on stigmatization (labeling) that occurs at status degradation ceremonies. – usually affixed at the end of a dramatic and highly public event (eg court trial or insanity hearing)  Also no similar process exists for removal of stigma even after the individual completed his time of imprisonment/ treatment – thus stigmatized permanently, and contribute to ongoing deviant behavior (identity has been spoiled) STATUS DEGRADTION CEREMONIES – GARFINKEL  Found in most societies, serve as outlets for expression of moral indignation, and as forms for public condemnation and shaming for those who violate social norms  E.g. sanity hearings (mental illness), excommunication (church), courts martial (military), criminal trials (for criminality)  Like Garfinkel, Erikson talks about status degradation ceremonies, starting with confrontation between deviant and community, followed by judgement (guilt or mental illness), and end with disposition or placement (prison, psychiatric institution) MORAL ENTREPRENEURS – HOWARD BECKER  For an act to become deviant + for social control to be invoked, you need someone to focus attention on it as a problem  Becker characterized them as “crusaders” – they act as though they are on a holy mission to stamp out evil o They believe their views are right and feel it’s their moral duty to impose their views on others  They are typically group/indiv with money and political connections necessary to further their own agenda MASTER AND AUXILIARY STATUS – HOWARD BECKER  Master status – person’s primary characteristics (drug addict, criminal, mentally ill) – override auxiliary status  Auxiliary status – person’s secondary characteristics (eg intelligence, good conversationalist)  People are blinded by master status (eg criminal) and don’t see beyond that, even if secondary status are positive characteristics (may be smart, kind) RETROSPECTIVE INTERPRETATION – HOWARD BECKER  After person is labeled, people who knew him previously ask themselves why they didn’t recognize deviance before  Search memories, reinterpret them to find consistency between individual’s new master status and their previous behaviour MORAL PANICS  first coined by Stanley Cohen  Social problems that resulted in extreme social reactions  Erich Goode and Ben-Yehuda: moral panic is the widespread concern about a ‘problem’ behaviour  Increased hostility toward the source of problem  A general social consensus that the ‘threat’ was real and a disproportionate social reaction to the supposed threat  Often unstable – appear suddenly, were of short duration, and then disappear quickly Mods and Rockers – Stanley Cohen  in “Folk Devils and Moral Panics”  described how the Mods and Rockers (2 small disorganized youth gang in UK) suddenly attracted widespread media and public attention, leading to police crackdowns, stiffer sentencing, and calls for new laws to deal with the ‘problem’  Cohen observed that the mods and rockers actually caused relatively little harm, and soon quickly disappeared altogether from the public imagination “Missing Children” – Joel Best  also demonstrated moral panic concerning ‘missing children’ led to The Mission Children’s Act in 1982, many new law, crisis center and money raising organization, research center, etc  In reality, the numbers of ‘missing’ children were highly exaggerated, no one knew where the numbers came from, most children were either runaways or had been abducted by non-custodial parent THE LIMITS TO CONSTRUCTIONISM – ERICH GOODE  in “Round Up the Usual Suspects”  Warns against simplistic applications of the constructionist perspective to social problems that might actually be threatening  Said we should avoid automatic assumptions that the police round up suspects randomly or underdogs/easy targets  While many reality are socially constructed, some have factual grounding in real world - crime is real,
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