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CRIM 104
Barry Cartwright

NAMES De Montesquieu (1689-1755)  founder of sociology of knowledge  Studied different types of societies throughout history  Studied social facts, social institutions, social institutions, social organization, social class and social conditions  And how they affect thinking and cultural perspective SAINT-SIMON (1760-1825)  founders of sociology  Called for a “human science"  emphasized importance of moral order  Introduced the concept of “positivism” (using scientific method to study human phenomena)  view society as functional mechanism greater than its component parts JEREMY BENTHAM (1748-1832)  Wrote Principles of Morals and Legislation in 1789  Argued that people were rational, and exercised “free will” (not demonic influence)  Rational people would weigh pleasure against pain (hedonistic calculus) Auguste Comte (1798-1857)  Coined the term “sociology”  concerned with moral order and moral disunity  opposed to social criticism, social conflict and social change  Redefined “positivism” as positive philosophy --the opposite of the critical, “negativistic” philosophy of the French Revolution and The Enlightenment W.I.Thomas and Florian Znaniecki  Wrote Polish Peasant  Znaniecki – from Poland  Both were early members of Chicago school Taylor, R.(1986). “Environmental Design, Crime and Prevention.” In Communities and Crime C. Ray Jeffery(1965). “Criminal Behavior and Learning Theory” Talcott Parsons  Started the concept of “structural functionalism” – started callinig it SF and writing about it  The 4 Main Parts of the Social System: Family, schools, religion, economy  Function was to maintain society (help it to survive) and to ensure wellbeing of its members. Positive School people: CHARLES DARWIN (1809-1882) - EVOLUTIONARY THEORY  Evolutionary change took place over millions of years  Process occurred as consequence of “natural selection” and “specialization” HERBERT SPENCER (1820-1903)  Popularized the term “evolution” and came up with expression “survival of the fittest”  Societies followed principle of “natural selection” through process of competition  Rich and powerful more “fit;”, poor, mentally ill or criminals were “unfit” GREGOR MENDEL (1822-1884)  Father of Genetics  Talked about heredity, inherited characteristics, recessive and dominant, genes, mutations  Led some to believe that deviance, criminal behaviour and feeblemindedness were solely result of bad genes  Discounted effects of environment, socialization and social structure Robert Merton  American sociologists  Took Durkheim’s concept of anomie and used it to explain high crime rates in America, in his 1938 article “Social Structure and Anomie”, which came to be known as “anomie-strain theory”  Is a structural functionalist (well-known work on “manifest and latent functions” and reference to “malfunctioning of the social structure”) EDWIN SUTHERLAND  Professor at University of Chicago for 5 years th  Described as “most important criminologists of 20 century”  Most well known for Differential Association Theory  Wrote “The Professional Thief”  Wrote “White Collar Crime “ - Coined the term White Collar Crime  Argued that crime also exist in business, politics and the professions (lawyers, accountants, doctors, stock brokers, bank managers, businessmen/women)  Eg Embezzlement, bribery of government officials, false advertising, manipulation of stock values  Also learned through differential association  Cost was many times greater than cost of all street crime combined Orgins of Criminology / Classical School THE ENLIGHTENMENT (also known as the Age of Reason)  Period from 1689 to 1789 (began with English Revolution, ended with French Revolution)  Intellectual movement involving philosophers, political reformers, social theorists and religious skeptics  New focus on critical examination of human life, religious beliefs and society  Greater emphasis on reason and science, rationality and empiricism  Time of Newton’s discovery of gravity, DEMONIC VIEW  1400-1700  saw deviance as evil  crime is due to temptation and moral weakness  can only be cured by exorcism or execution  death penalty, cruel torture to both innocent and guilty THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL  emerged from The Enlightenment  view 1700-1800  saw deviance as violation of social contract  caused by free will and hedonism – seeking pleasure  learned from deterrence CESARE BECCARIA  Classical School Of Criminology  Torture was unfair—confession may have nothing to do with innocent or guilt o If innocent =tortured once; if guilty = torture twice; death penalty  Published essay “On Crimes and Punishments” o published anonymously, for fear of persecution o Remained on Catholic Church’s prohibited list of readings until 1960s. o recommendations repeated in French Declaration of Independence, Constitution of US THE POSITIVE SCHOOL  Classical 1700-1800  Positive 1800-1900  Saw deviance as sickness, pathology, inferiority  caused by bad genes or defeats  remedied by treatment, elimination CESARE LOMBROSO (1835-1909)  Founder of positive school  Medical doctor—measured soldiers, insane people and criminals and members of general public  In search of the atavistic man: Degenerate throwback on earlier forms of evolution ANOMIE-STRAIN The Normal and the Pathological – Emile Durkheim  criminologists generally regard crime as “abnormal” or pathological—as a form of “social morbidity”  All societies have some level of crime so some amount of crime must be normal. o Even “a community of saints” would search out and identify some “unconventional” behavior as criminal or deviant.  Crime serves a function—contributes to social cohesion by bringing ppl tgt through indignation and anger  Crime set boundaries, delineates what is socially acceptable and what is not Anomie  Term coined byEmile Durkheim  Used to describe periods of lawlessness, normlessness and unregulated choice  Times of collapse of social solidarity  Later used by Robert Merton to describe the disjunction between the American dream and the institutional means by which to achieve them Social Solidarity / Forces of Integration and Forces of Regulation  Durkheim felt that social solidarity/Social cohesion was created from forces of integration (eg social bonds, shared values, beliefs, forces of attraction, attachment)  If integration fails, then forces of regulation (police, courts, law) would step in to constrain individual behavior Social Structure and Anomie – Robert Merton Anomie-Strain Theory / Cultural Goals and Institutional means  Robert Merton  American culture highly emphasize on the cultural goals (“American Dream” - accumulation of wealth and social advancement), but not everyone has access to the institutional means (employment, opportunities, education) to achieve these goals  Merton said the dysfunction between the two cause a sense of anomie/social strain, pushing certain individuals toward crime and deviance  People develop a “Ends Justify the Means” attitude – results from a culture of competition and a desire to get ahead at all costs o Disjunction between cultural goals and institutional means lead to anomie-strain, causing individual to be highly competitive and engage in cut-throat behavior eg wrestler defeat opponent by illegal tactics Five Modes of Adaptation to Anomie-Strain  Conformity: Most common. Accept goals, accept means. o Try to get a decent education, a job, works hard, save money, play by the rules.  Innovation: Most likely to become criminal. Accept goals, reject means o Find unconventional/non-conforming way to achieve cultural goals o Want nice things, cant afford, choose to steal  Ritualism: Reject goals, accept means. o Given up being successful, follow rules, avoid risk o Means becomes ends. Don’t expect to get anywhere  Retreatism: Reject goals, reject means (Eg: Drug addicts, alcoholics, street people) o Drop out of society, do not believe they can attain goal and do not want to play by the rules  Rebellion: Reject/replace goals and means (eg terrorists who blow things up to achieve political change) o Try to change or replace society’s goals, means and rules with new ones, may try to establish social order or even try to overthrow existing government Contemporary version of Anomie Strain Theory Criticisms of Earlier Anomie-Strain Theory  Too specific to American society / American Dream  Assumption that everyone has the same interest in monetary success  Too much focus on lower-class youth, fail to explain crimes committed by middle/upper class youths Time Line  Durkheim 1893, 1987, Introduced anomie, anomic division of labor, anomic suicide o Merton 1938 Cultural goals vs institutional means, five modes of adaptation  Cohen 1955 Status deprivation, middle-class measuring rod, reaction formation  Cloward and Ohlin 1960 Illegitimate Opportunity Structures: Criminal, conflict, retreatist  Robert Agnew 1985 General Strain Theory o Messner & Rosenfeld 1994: Institutional-Anomie Theory, Crime and American Dream 1. Delinquent Boys: The Culture of the Gangs Status Frustration / Status Deprivation / The Middle-Class Measuring Rod / Reaction Formation  1955 book by Albert Cohen  When lower class youths tried to compete for social status in school, they would find that they could not meet the standards of the middle-class measuring rod.  As a result, develop a sense of status deprivation or status frustration, a sense of anomie or strain.  Viewed delinquent behavior as a type of reaction formation – to status deprivation  Also viewed delinquency as a collective solution –delinquent subculture reacted to status deprivation by redefining the meaning of status and establishing new norms, set new types of acceptable behavior or conduct.  New standards permit gangs to engage in criminal behavior without feeling the usual shame/guilt 2. Illegitimate Opportunity Structures  Cloward and Ohlin’s described three subcultures that were differentially available to would-be delinquents. The Criminal Subculture  found in “organized” slums  Pre-existing crime network, focused on profit-making.  Older, more experience offenders would serve as role models for the younger, wannabe offenders. Conflict Subculture  in disorganized slums.  no access to illegitimate opportunity structures of the criminal subculture  Rebelled against society and middle class values nevertheless  Characterized by violence, gang fighting, acting tough Retreatist Subcultures  Described by the drug subculture  Attracted youths of “double failure” – could not obtain status through legitimate/illegitimate means  Turn to drugs to solve status discontentment 3. General Strain Theory  Robert Agnew  “A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency”. Revised (update) version Robert Merton’s anomie-strain theory.  Added the avoidance of aversive or noxious stimuli o These stimuli include conflict with parent/teacher, failure at school, being unpopular o Can cause frustration, which in turn leads to anger, aggression and juvenile delinquency. o Described as “pain-avoidance behavior”, but if failed could lead to “frustration and aggression”.  Says that youth (including middle/upper class) are more concerned about immediate goals – eg, physical appearance, popularity, success in sports, doing well at school – than they are about longer term goals (wealth & success)  Most youth lack the means to escape from aversive situations – no money, no complete control over own lives, can’t simply leave home or change school General Strain vs Traditional GS: running away from conflict with family, peers, school T: running toward success symbols  Thus anomie strain can be caused by wanted to escape from something you cannot get away from as well as being caused by something you cannot get Path of Model of Strain Theory  Diagram in Robert Agnew’s article “A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency”. o Aversive Environment  Lead to frustration > anger > aggression behavior o Social control (lack attachment) + Subculture deviance  delinquency 4. CRIME AND THE AMERICAN DREAM Institutional-Anomie Theory  Messner and Rosenfeld , in their 1994 book Crime and the American Dream.  A macro-level version of anomie-strain theory.  Describing a capitalist economy with unregulated goals and means  There is an imbalance of institutional power, with the economy dominating the other three institutions. o Neither the political system or the CJS provide sufficient legal or moral oversight for this deregulated economy  Pursuit of monetary goals at all cost; ends justify the means  Leads to corporate crime, white collar crime, employee theft, etc. Four Main Social Institutions: Economy, Family, Polity, Education  If functioning normally, supposed to integrate and regulate society Other Solutions Relative Deprivation Theory  Studied by Blau and Blau, Sampson, Agnew, Messner.  “Relative” deprivation different from “absolute” deprivation; may not be poor, starving, living on the streets  Feel deprived in comparison to normative/comparison (reference) group  Also depends on perception. Not all lower class want expensive beer or expensive houses, most are content with their lives so don’t feel sense of deprivation, only seen as deprivation if perceived as such Reference Groups  Reference groups set standards  Normative reference groups set standard norms and rules for individuals who wish to join or maintain group acceptance. o They either join or don’t join, they don’t compare or compete with other groups eg to be in lawyer society, need degree.  Comparative reference groups are groups that individuals would like to join, or would like to avoid joining. o Most likely to lead to sense of relative deprivation eg yacht club, but not enough money o Might not want to join the homeless, or lower class THE CHICAGO SCHOOL + SDT Historical Factors of Chicago  Between 1800-1900, Chicago grew from being a small town with around 200 inhabitants to a city with over 3 million inhabitants  City grew through successive waves of immigrants, blacks moving from south to north, displaced farm workers and overseas immigrants coming to America from places such as Poland, Ireland, Italy and Germany
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