CRIM 104 Study Guide - Comprehensive Final Exam Guide - Hedonism, White-Collar Crime, University Of Chicago

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CRIM 104
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Lecture One Crim 104 !
Sociology is the study of: !
!! ""Social relations- the way that individuals and groups relate to each other (governed or !
controlled by law and by CJS)
!! ""Social forces- shape our political system, social system, laws, and CJS
!! ""Social conduct- how we behave or conduct ourselves in our social relations
!! ""Social conventions- norms or expectations- what people expect we will do. Some are !
informal, some formal
!! ""Social constraints- can be formal or informal. Informal constraints (rejection, shunning,
or !
exclusion) formal social constraints (laws, the courts, police, prison system)
!! ""Social institutions- (the CJS) largely modern creations, designed to constrain those who !
do not follow social convention
Is sociology really a science? !
Sociology involves a respect for logical clarity in the formulation of theories and also
involves disciplined empirical investigation
Science empiricism and theory
!! ""Science- the use of logical, systematic methods to produce a body of knowledge
!! ""Empiricism- factual investigation and observation
!! ""Theory- explains why things happen; help us make sense out of facts, through !
construction of abstract interpretation of empirical situations !
Problems of social science
!! ""Studying humans and social behaviour is different than studying atoms, minerals, !
chemicals, or plant life
!! ""Humans may be uncooperative or may consciously alter their behaviour when being !
studied
!! ""Human behaviour can be quite complex, so so clear- cut cause- effect relationships may !
be difficult to pin down !
Sociology and criminology
!! ""Sociology and criminology are highly interrelated
!! ""Many of the ideas in criminology come from the field of sociology
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!! ""Until recently criminology was a sub-discipline of sociology, and was under the
sociology department !
The roots of criminology and sociology !
!! ""Roots of sociology are as much the same as roots of criminology
!! ""Both disciplines are quite new and have their origins in The Enlightenment
The enlightenment
!!Also known as the age of reason
!! ""Period from 1690-1789 (began with English revolution, ended with French revolution)
!! ""Intellectual movement involving philosophers, political reformers, social theorists, and !
religious skeptics
!! ""New focus on critical exams of human life, religious beliefs, and society
!! ""Greater emphasis on reason and science, rationality and empiricism
!! ""Time of newton’s discovery on gravity !
De Montesquieu (1689-1755)
!! "Regarded as founder of sociology of knowledge
!! ""Studied social faces, social institutions, different types of societies throughout
history
!! ""Examined how different types of social organization, social class positions and
social !
conditions affect forms of thought and cultural perspective !
Saint- Simon (1760-1825)
!! ""Widely regarded as one of the founders of sociology
!! ""Impressed by Newton’s law of gravity and with the scientific method in general,
the !
power of reason
!! ""Introduced the concept of positivism- the application of scientific principles to
the study !
of human phenomenon
!! ""Called for a human science that would discover the laws of social development
"
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