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Criminology 131 Review

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Simon Fraser University
CRIM 131
Kash Heed

Criminology 131 Review Levels of government in Canada - Federal o People in Ottawa, members of parliament o Criminal law, prosecution, punishment o Judges, administration o National Police Force RCMP, CPIC, Labs, Canadian Firearms Centre o CSIS (Correction service) o Corrections Canada o CBSA (Canadian Boarder Agency) o DOJ (Department of Justice) o Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, 1982 Primary law of the land Guarantees fundamental freedoms, legal rights, equality rights CJS must not violate Charter o Identification Act, Anti-Terrorism Act, Sex Offender Registration - Provincial o 10 provinces, 3 territories o Administration of Justice, MAG, Sol Gen, Health (addiction) o Provincial laws - quasi-criminal, MVA (street racing), Civil forfeiture o Oversee Police Does not apply to RCMP because they fall under Federal o Prosecute o Judges o Jails/Corrections Institutional Community - Municipal o By-laws Minor penalties Towing cars, street by-laws, house permits, health Often times just in certain cities o Ie. By-law in Surrey for dangerous dogs o Municipal Police (pay full cost) Boards City Council Mayor often chair of the police board Constitution Act - 1867 - Defined the roles of government Crime Funnel Investigation Charge or not to charge Digression Prosecution Digression Punishment Corrections/sentence Eras of Policing - Era 1: Political era (Reform period) o 9 principles o The police are the public, the public are the police o 19th centre police were: strong, white males, if you looked like you could calm down a crowd you were given a badge, you did not get training or need an educational background, you had to be a physical brute o Given a particular area to patrol, in the evening a night watchman o Couldn't call for back up (no radios) used a phone on a street corner to check in o No forensics, had to witness the crime, bring the person in and then go to court o Full of police corruption because they were not paid well Police facilitating some of the crime, bribed Drugs and alcohol, gambling, prostitution, all under the watch of corrupt police officers o Corruption was also within government o Had to know people in the community, interaction Know who to watch out for and who their friends were o More engaged in the community - Era 2: Professional (Revolutionary) o The need to change policing Because political era had too many problems o Officers were hired with some education (mostly grade 10, later grade 12), pass an exam, training on legal aspect and human behaviour, standards that police had to uphold, introduction of fire arms, more functional uniforms, introduce some technology (finger printing, photos of crime scenes), specialized policing, introduction of 911, women and visible minorities involved, police associations (as a result more people went to jail), separation from the community o Police became overwhelmed, crimes went up, calls went up. Demands were more than the police could handle o Rapid, reactive, random - Era 3: Community Policing o Problem oriented policing o Work together with the community to address the problems o Community forums o Police interacting with the community o Tough era - called 911 and we'll come running o Crime rate fell in 1994 (In the US)o Was supposed to move us to be proactive, directive and creative o Were not listening to the community like they should've o Didn't take off like it should've o Budgets were limited o More demand - Era 4: Intel Era o Police agencies determine what their priorities are based on intelligence o Intelligence comes from many areas Community All the components of the CJS - formal and informal Police officers, other police agencies o Take intelligence and analyze it and then work on a response Response will include the police and others (including the community and other components of the CJS) o Have limited resources o Hold police officers accountable for dealing with their crime or disorder issues o Convinced some leaders to quit because they were not making
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